What is a utilitarian need?
Provides a functional or practical benefit (e.g. hungry)
What is a hedonic need?
An experimental need involving emotional responses (e.g. the need for exploration or fun)
What are the two types of motivations?
- Utilitarian needs
* Hedonic needs
Is motivation goal-oriented?
What is drive?
The degree of arousal present due to a discrepancy between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state
What is a want?
A particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need (water vs. sports drinks)
Personal and cultural factors create a want.
Motivation can be described in terms of:
- Strength: the degree to which a person is willing to expend energy to reach a goal
- Direction: the particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension
What is instinct? (Biological vs. learned needs)
Innate patterns of behaviour that are universal in a species
What is drive theory? (Biological vs. learned needs)
Focuses on biological needs that product unpleasant states of arousal (e.g. a grumbling stomach)
We are motivated to reduce tension (i.e. unpleasant state) caused by this arousal.
An example of homeostasis - a goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one.
What is homeostasis?
A goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate an unpleasant state and return to a balanced one. (e.g. Drive theory)
What is expectancy theory? (Biological vs. learned needs)
Behaviour is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes - positive incentives - rather than pushed from within (e.g. people will be willing to work harder if they think the extra effort will be rewarded)
Focuses on cognitive factors (rather than biological) to understand what drives behaviour.
What is the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance? (Motivation conflicts)
A state of tension occurs when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another.
What is Cognitive Dissonance Reduction?
Process by which people are motivated to reduce tension between beliefs or behaviours and thus eliminate tension.
What is intrinsic motivation?
To be motivated by the enjoyment of an activity without a further end-goal.
What is extrinsic motivation?
Motivated by external influences, or by a goal that is separate from ourselves
What experiential customer values is extrinsic motivation linked to?
Social approval and functional value
What experiential customer values is intrinsic motivation linked to?
Altruistic and emotional value
What is the approach-approach type of motivational conflict?
A conflict between two desirable options. e.g. wanting to go on holiday with friends vs. wanting to go with family.
Marketing responses - offer holiday package that combines both alternatives
What is the approach-avoid type of motivational conflict?
A conflict between a desirable and undesirable alternative linked to the same object.
E.g. wanting to eat chocolate vs wanting to avoid the fat/sugar.
Marketing response - repackage chocolate into smaller portions or offering low-fat options
What is the avoid-avoid type of motivational conflict?
A conflict between two undesirable alternatives. E.g. spending money to repair a TV vs spending money to buy a new TV.
Marketing response - offer interest-free loans or trade-in to reduce pain of outlaying money.
What are 4 specific needs that drive buying behaviour?
Need for achievement: to attain personal accomplishment.
Need for affiliation: to be in the company of others.
Need for power: to control one’s environment.
Need for uniqueness: to assert one’s individual identity.
What is Self-Determination Theory (SDT)?
Another approach used to define the needs people seek to satisfy.
SDT suggests that people are motivated to grow and change by innate psychological needs.
According to Self-Determination Theory, people need to feel what 3 things in order to achieve psychological growth?
- Autonomy: People need to feel in control of their own behaviours, choices and goals.
- Competence: People need to feel capability of achieving desired outcomes.
- Relatedness: People need to experience a sense of belonging.
When people experience these three things, they become self-determined and able to be intrinsically motivated to pursue the things that interest them.
What can undermine autonomy in self-determination theory?
Giving people extrinsic rewards (e.g. prizes, acclaim) for already intrinsically motivated behaviour.
Application of autonomy support in self-determination theory?
Minimal external pressure; provision of maximum choice
Application of competency support in self-determination theory?
Application of relatedness support in self-determination theory?
Warmth; conveyance of belonging
What are 2 problems of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
- Too simplistic (e.g. the same product can satisfy different needs)
Does each nation consist of sub-populations of individuals that vary widely in their motivations and drives?
What is consumer involvement?
A person’s perceived relevance of an object (i.e. a good, service, advertisement or purchase situation) based on their inherent needs, values and interests.
Information processing depends on the consumer’s level of involvement. What are the two types of information processing?
- Simple processing: only the basic features of the message are considered
- Elaboration: incoming information is linked to pre-existing knowledge
A person’s involvement is a continuum that ranges from disinterest to obsession. What are the 3 types?
- Intertia (low involvement consumption) - consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives
- Flow state (high involvement consumption) - consumer is truly involved with the product, ad or website
- Cult products - command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion and perhaps worship by consumers who are highly involved in the product.
What is product involvement?
Related to a consumer’s level of interest in a particular product.
What is message-response involvement?
AKA. Advertising involvement. Refers to a consumer’s interest in processing marketing communications.
What is purchase situation involvement?
Refers to the differences that may occur when buying the same object for different contexts.
What are the elements of an involvement profile?
- Personal interest in a product category
- Risk importance
- Probability of making a bad purchase
- Pleasure value of the product category
- How closely the product is related to the self
What are 5 strategies to increase involvement?
- Appeal to consumers’ hedonic needs:
e. g. using sensory appeals to generate attention.
- Use novel stimuli:
e. g. unusual cinematography, sudden silences etc.
- Use prominent stimuli:
e. g. larger ads, fact action, more colour.
- Include celebrity endorsers.
- Build a bond with consumers by maintaining an ongoing relationship.
What is value?
A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite (e.g. freedom is better than slavery)
What are core values?
General set of values that uniquely define a culture.
What is a value system?
A culture’s unique set of rankings of the relative importance of universal values.
What is enculturation?
Process of learning the value systems of one’s own culture
What is acculturation?
Process of learning the value system of another culture.
Cultural beliefs of taught by what?
Socialisation agents (e.g. parents, friends and teachers)
What are useful distinction in values for consumer behaviour research?
- Cultural values (e.g. security or happiness)
- Consumption-specific values (e.g. convenient shopping or prompt service)
- Product-specific values (e.g. ease-of-use or durability)
Virtually all consumer research is ultimately related to identification and measurement of values.
What are the two types of values in the Rokeach Value Survey?
- Terminal Values: desired end states.
* Instrumental Values: actions needed to achieve terminal values.
What is the List of Values (LOV) Scale?
Developed to isolate values with more direct marketing applications.
Identifies nine consumer segments based on the values they endorse.
Relates each value to differences in consumption.
What are syndicated surveys?
Large-scale commercial surveys.
Examples include VALS 2, Australian Consumer Confidence Survey, Morgan Gallup Poll, Lifestyles Study.
What is the Means-End Chain Model?
- A brand’s features or ATTRIBUTES that deliver
- the brand and it’s features do something
- Meaningful CONSEQUENCES
- That are consistent with important PERSONAL VALUES and goals held by the consumer
- what is really important to the consumer even if they know it or not
What is laddering?
An in-depth, one-on-one interviewing technique used to develop an understanding of how consumers translate the attributes of products into meaningful associations with respect to self, following Means-End Theory.
Repeatedly asking “Why”
Why do you like it?
Why is it important to you?
What is materialism?
The importance people attach to worldly possessions.
Tends to emphasise the well-being of the individual versus the group.