What is sensation?
The immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to basic stimuli (light, colour, sound, odours, textures)
What is perception?
The process by which sensations are selected, organised & interpreted
What is the Study of Perception?
Focuses on what we add to raw sensations to give them meaning.
Sensory stimuli –> sensory receptors –> exposure –> attention –> interpretation
e.g. sights - eyes - exposure - attention - interpretation
What is embodied cognition?
The idea that without our conscious awareness, our bodily sensations (help) determine our perceptions or decisions we make.
Markets rely heavily on visual elements in…(3) (Sensory marketing: visual)
Meanings are communicate on the visual channel through… (2) (Sensory marketing: visual)
Can colours influence our emotions?
Red - arousal and stimulated appetite.
Blue - relaxation
Can odours stir emotions or create a calming feeling? (Sensory marketing: smell)
Yes. Some responses to scents result from early associations that call up good/bad feelings.
What do advertising jingles create? (Sensory marketing: sound)
What does background music create? (Sensory marketing: sound)
What does sound affect? (Sensory marketing: sound)
People’s feelings and behaviours
What is exposure?
Occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone’s sensory receptors.
Consumers concentrate on some stimuli, are unaware of others, and even go out of their way to ignore some messages.
What are psychophysics? (sensory thresholds)
The science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal subjective world.
What is the absolute threshold? (sensory thresholds)
Minimum amount of stimulation detected on a sensory channel (e.g., size of highway billboard ad)
What is the differential threshold? (sensory thresholds)
Ability of a sensory system to detect changes/ differences between two stimuli. Minimum difference that can be detected is the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference)—e.g., 10% off vs. 11% off vs. 15% vs. 30% off
What is Weber’s Law? (sensory thresholds)
The amount of change necessary to be noticed is related to the intensity of the original stimulus. The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater a change must be for it to be noticed
$10 product offers $3 discount vs.
$100 product offers $3 discount.
What is subliminal perception?
Occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness.
There is little evidence that subliminal stimuli can bring about desired behavioural changes.
What is attention?
The extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus.
Attention allocation will depend on characteristics of the individual and the stimulus.
What is perceptual selection?
People attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed (e.g., selective attention)
What are the personal selection factors of attention?
- Perceptual vigilance
- Perceptual defence
What is experience? (personal selection factors of attention)
The result of acquiring and processing stimulation over time.
What is perceptual vigilance? (personal selection factors of attention)
Consumers are aware of stimuli that relate to current needs (e.g., A consumer are much aware of car ads when s/he is looking for a new car)
What is perceptual defence?(personal selection factors of attention)
People see what they want to see or don’t see what they don’t want to see (e.g., smokers may block out cancer-scarred images)
Adaptation: The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over
What is adaptation? (personal selection factors of attention)
The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time. It occurs when consumers no longer pay attention to an object because it is so familiar. Factors that lead to adaptation include:
- Intensity: Less-intense stimuli habituate, as they have less sensory impact
- Duration: Stimuli that require relatively lengthy exposure to be processed tend to habituate, because they require a long attention span.
- Discrimination: Simple stimuli tend to habituate because they do not require attention to detail.
- Exposure: Frequently encountered stimuli tend to habituate as the rate of exposure increases.
- Relevance: Stimuli that are irrelevant or unimportant will habituate because they fail to attract attention.
What are the 4 stimulus selection factors?
- Size: The size of the stimulus in contrast to the competition helps to determine if it will command attention.
- Colour: a powerful way to draw attention to a product.
- Position: Stimuli that are present in places we’re more likely to look stand a better chance of being noticed.
- Novelty: Stimuli that appear in unexpected ways/ places tend to grab our attention.
The Gestalt perceptual principles ensures what?
People derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimuli, rather than from any individual stimuli.
The Gestalt perspective provides what 3 principles?
- Closure principle
- Principle of Similarity
- Figure-ground Principle
What is the closure principle? (Gestalt perceptual principles - attention: stimulus organisation)
People tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete (e.g. it is about drawing conclusions from less-than-all the information)
What is the principle of similarity? (Gestalt perceptual principles - attention: stimulus organisation)
Consumers tend to group together objects that share the same physical characteristics (e.g., Coke—similar-shaped bottle and common colour schemes)
What is the figure-ground principle? (Gestalt perceptual principles - attention: stimulus organisation)
One part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (the ground)
What is semiotics?
Field of study that examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning
What is the key issue of semiotics?
Understanding how consumers interpret the meanings of symbols.
What are the 3 components of a message in marketing?
- Object: what is being sold? (e.g., McDonalds’ hamburgers)
- Sign: the sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object (how is it depicted?) (e.g., Magical Clown)
- Interpretant: the meaning derived. (e.g., there is something magical about McDonald’s food)
What is a positioning strategy? (attention: perceptual positioning)
A fundamental part of a company’s marketing efforts, as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer’s interpretation of its meaning.
Many different types of positioning strategies
- Personality (e.g., sophisticated)
- Attributes (e.g., Volvo-safety)
- Price (e.g., Rolex)
- Other ways (e.g., 7 up – Uncola; Avis – We are #2).
What is interpretation?
The meaning that we assign sensory stimuli.
What is schema?
Set of beliefs to which the stimulus is assigned.
What is priming?
Process by which certain properties of a stimulus will typically evoke a schema, which leads consumers to evaluate the stimulus in terms of other stimulus they have encountered and believe to be similar.
What is learning?
A relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience.
What is incidental learning?
Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge.
Behavioural learning theories assume that:
Learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.
What are the two major approaches to learning?
- Classical Conditioning
* Instrumental (or Operant) Conditioning
Classical conditioning occurs when:
A stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Over time, this second stimulus causes a similar response because it is associated with the first stimulus.
What is unconditioned stimulus (USC)?
Naturally capable of causing a response.
What is conditioned stimulus (CS)?
Does not initially cause a response.
What is a conditioned response (CR)?
Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS. Eventually, through learned association and repetition, the CS will cause the CR.
What is stimulus generalisation? (Classical conditioning)
Refers to the tendency of stimuli similar to a CS (e.g., Pavlov’s dog – “bell”) to evoke similar conditioned responses (e.g. “keys jangling”)
– e.g., (1) if a beer brand uses similar visual images that Corona uses (2) look-alike packaging
What is masked branding? (Classical conditioning)
Deliberately hiding a product’s true origins (e.g., Lexus does not use Toyota)
Stimulus discrimination occurs when? (Classical conditioning)
Occurs when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS. (e.g., only respond to “bell” but to “key jangling”)
– e.g., (1) no conditioned responses to look-alike packaging/similar visual images
What is instrumental (operant) conditioning?
Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviours that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviours that yield negative outcomes.
e.g. wearing perfume gives you compliments (reward) and stops you from getting ridiculed for smelling badly (punishment)
What is shaping?
The learning of a desired behaviour over time by rewarding until the final result is obtained
What is extinction?
When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained.
What is cognitive learning theory?
Stresses the importance of internal mental processes. This perspective views people as problem-solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment.
Cognitive learning theorists believe that conditioning occurs because subjects develop what?
Conscious hypotheses (e.g., people with an eating disorder tend to believe that they are extremely overweight) then act on them.
What is a trigger feature (it is non-conscious process)?
A stimulus that cues an individual toward a particular pattern and activates a reaction (e.g., a seductive woman in a car ad men give positive evaluation on the car)
What are the 5 components of observational learning?
- Production Processes
- Observational Learning
What is observational learning?
Occurs when people watch the actions of others and note reinforcements received for their behaviours.
Learning occurs as a result of vicarious, rather than direct, experience.
The process of imitating the behaviour of others is known as what?
What are the stages of memory?
- Encoding stage: information entered in a recognisable way.
- Storage stage: knowledge integrated into what is already in memory and warehoused.
- Retrieval stage: the person accesses the desired information.
What are the two types of meaning? (Encoding info for later retrieval)
- Sensory meaning (e.g. colour or shape).
* Semantic meaning: symbolic associations (e.g. rich people drink champagne).
Personal relevance can come in the form of: (3) (Personal relevance - encoding)
- Episodic memories: relate to events that are personally relevant (e.g., the movie you saw on your first date with your boy/girl friend)
- Flashbulb memories: especially vivid associations.
- Narrative: an effective way of persuading people to construct a mental representation of the information that they are viewing.
What are the 3 distinct memory systems?
- Sensory Memory: Very temporary storage of information we receive from our senses.
- Short-Term Memory (STM):Working memory (i.e. holds memory we are currently processing).Limited period of time and limited capacity.
- Long-Term Memory (LTM): Can retain info for a long period. For info to enter LTM, elaborative rehearsal is required (i.e. thinking about the meaning of a stimulus and relating it to info already in memory).
What is the multiple store model? (Storing information in memory)
Traditional perspective which assumes that STM & LTM are separate systems
Activation models of memory argue what? (Storing information in memory)
That different levels of processing occur depending on the nature of the processing task. The deeper the processing the more likely information is to be stored in LTM.
Activation models propose that information is stored in an associative network…
What are associative networks?
Related information is organised according to some set of relationships.
What are knowledge structures?
Storage units like complex ‘spider webs’ filled with pieces of data.
What is a node?
Piece of information connected to other information via associative links.
What is spreading activation?
A process that allows consumers to shift back and forth between levels of meaning.
What is a proposition (or belief)?
A larger unit of meaning (i.e. formed by combinations of nodes)
What is schema?
A cognitive framework (comprised of propositions) developed through experience
What is retrieval?
Process whereby info is recovered from LTM
What is state-dependent retrieval?
A process by which consumers are better able to access info if their internal state is the same at the time of their recall as when the info was learned (also called ‘mood congruence effect’).
What is salience?
The prominence or level of activation of stimuli in memory. Any technique that increases the novelty of a stimulus also improves recall (Von Restorff Effect)
How does familiarity affect recall?
Prior familiarity enhances recall.
What is decay? (factors influencing forgetting)
The structural changes in the brain produced by learning simply go away.
What is retroactive interference?
Consumers forget stimulus-response associations when new responses to the same or similar stimuli are learned (e.g., difficult to remember the old phone # due to the new phone #; new brand information blocks…)
What is proactive interference?
When prior learning interferes with new learning (e.g., difficult to memorize the new phone # due to the old phone #; old brand information blocks….)
What is part-list cueing effect?
When only a portion of the items in a category are presented to consumers, the omitted items are not as easily recalled
Example: You have seen 10 brands. I show you some of them (e.g., 5 brands—We call this “part-list cue). Then, I ask you to remember other remaining 5 brands. Remembering the remaining 5 brands is more difficult when the part-list cue brands are presented compared to when no part-list cue brands are shown.
What are retrieval cues?
Are something that helps you retrieve a certain memory
Example 1: Consider that you try to remember my name 20 years later, but not very successful. You see the word “handsome.” It rings a bell. You understand why HS told you that “HS stands for Handsome” in class. It is a retrieval cue.
What is a typical recognition test?
Subjects are shown ads and asked if they have seen them before.
What is a typical recall test?
Subjects are asked to independently think of what they have seen without being prompted first.
What are problems with memory measures?
Response Biases: A contaminated result due to the instrument or respondent, rather than the object being measured.
False Memories: The mistaken belief that something has occurred. Can create false product expectations/ evaluations, which then influence purchase decisions.
Memory Lapses: Unintentionally forgetting information by omitting, averaging, telescoping.
Memory for Facts and Feelings: Recall is insufficient to alter preferences. Need more sophisticated attitude-changing strategies