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Flashcards in Week 5 - Perception learning memory Deck (81)
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1

What is sensation?

The immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to basic stimuli (light, colour, sound, odours, textures)

2

What is perception?

The process by which sensations are selected, organised & interpreted

3

What is the Study of Perception?

Focuses on what we add to raw sensations to give them meaning.

Sensory stimuli --> sensory receptors --> exposure --> attention --> interpretation

e.g. sights - eyes - exposure - attention - interpretation

4

What is embodied cognition?

The idea that without our conscious awareness, our bodily sensations (help) determine our perceptions or decisions we make.

5

Markets rely heavily on visual elements in...(3) (Sensory marketing: visual)

Advertising

Store design

Packaging

6

Meanings are communicate on the visual channel through... (2) (Sensory marketing: visual)

Product colour

Size

Styling

7

Can colours influence our emotions?

Yes.

Red - arousal and stimulated appetite.

Blue - relaxation

8

Can odours stir emotions or create a calming feeling? (Sensory marketing: smell)

Yes. Some responses to scents result from early associations that call up good/bad feelings.

9

What do advertising jingles create? (Sensory marketing: sound)

Brand awareness

10

What does background music create? (Sensory marketing: sound)

Desired moods

11

What does sound affect? (Sensory marketing: sound)

People's feelings and behaviours

12

What is exposure?

Occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone’s sensory receptors.

Consumers concentrate on some stimuli, are unaware of others, and even go out of their way to ignore some messages.

13

What are psychophysics? (sensory thresholds)

The science that focuses on how the physical 
environment is integrated into our personal subjective world.

14

What is the absolute threshold? (sensory thresholds)

Minimum amount of stimulation detected on a sensory channel (e.g., size of highway billboard ad)

15

What is the differential threshold? (sensory thresholds)

Ability of a sensory system to detect changes/ differences between two stimuli. Minimum difference that can be detected is the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference)—e.g., 10% off vs. 11% off vs. 15% vs. 30% off

16

What is Weber's Law? (sensory thresholds)

The amount of change necessary to be noticed is related to the intensity of the original stimulus. The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater a change must be for it to be noticed

$10 product offers $3 discount vs.
$100 product offers $3 discount.

17

What is subliminal perception?

Occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness.

There is little evidence that subliminal stimuli can bring about desired behavioural changes.

18

What is attention?

The extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus.

Attention allocation will depend on 
characteristics of the individual and the stimulus.

19

What is perceptual selection?

People attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed (e.g., selective attention)

20

What are the personal selection factors of attention?

* Experience
* Perceptual vigilance
* Perceptual defence
* Adaptation

21

What is experience? (personal selection factors of attention)

The result of acquiring and processing stimulation over time.

22

What is perceptual vigilance? (personal selection factors of attention)

Consumers are aware of stimuli that relate to current needs (e.g., A consumer are much aware of car ads when s/he is looking for a new car)

23

What is perceptual defence?(personal selection factors of attention)

People see what they want to see or don’t see what they don’t want to see (e.g., smokers may block out cancer-scarred images)

Adaptation: The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over

24

What is adaptation? (personal selection factors of attention)

The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time. It occurs when consumers no longer pay attention to an object because it is so familiar. Factors that lead to adaptation include:
* Intensity: Less-intense stimuli habituate, as they have less sensory impact
* Duration: Stimuli that require relatively lengthy exposure to be processed tend to habituate, because they require a long attention span.
* Discrimination: Simple stimuli tend to habituate because they do not require attention to detail.
* Exposure: Frequently encountered stimuli tend to habituate as the rate of exposure increases.
* Relevance: Stimuli that are irrelevant or unimportant will habituate because they fail to attract attention.

25

What are the 4 stimulus selection factors?

* Size: The size of the stimulus in contrast to the competition helps to determine if it will command attention.

* Colour: a powerful way to draw attention to a product.

* Position: Stimuli that are present in places we’re more likely to look stand a better chance of being noticed.

* Novelty: Stimuli that appear in unexpected ways/ places tend to grab our attention.

26

The Gestalt perceptual principles ensures what?

People derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimuli, rather than from any individual stimuli.

27

The Gestalt perspective provides what 3 principles?

* Closure principle
* Principle of Similarity
* Figure-ground Principle

28

What is the closure principle? (Gestalt perceptual principles - attention: stimulus organisation)

People tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete (e.g. it is about drawing conclusions from less-than-all the information)

29

What is the principle of similarity? (Gestalt perceptual principles - attention: stimulus organisation)

Consumers tend to group together objects that share the same physical characteristics (e.g., Coke—similar-shaped bottle and common colour schemes)

30

What is the figure-ground principle? (Gestalt perceptual principles - attention: stimulus organisation)

One part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (the ground)