Flashcards in Week 8 - Self and Personality Deck (48)
When it comes to "self", Eastern cultures focus on what types of self? (2)
* The collective self - (person’s identity comes from
* The interdependent self (person’s identity defined
from relationships with others)
When it comes to "self", Western cultures focus on what? (2)
* Individual appearance
The self can be divided into what two things?
* An inner, private self
* An outer, public self
What is personal identity?
How we create ourselves as separate and unique (internally and ego driven)
What is social identity?
How we seek to affiliate with others and belong to a group
"Identity" is marketed as what?
A means to personal happiness and freedom
What is the privatisation of identity?
Consumer identity is being privatised through micro made-to-measure products and services
e.g. iPods, iTunes, private global networks (i.e. Facebook)
Organisations market one-to-one relationships with consumers.
What is self concept?
The beliefs a person holds about his or her own attributes and how he or she evaluates these qualities
What are the attribute dimensions of self concept?
1. Content (e.g., facial attractiveness)
2. Positivity (e.g., self-esteem)
4. Stability over time
5. Accuracy (e.g., the degree to which one’s self-assessment corresponds to reality)
What is self-esteem?
Refers to the positivity of a person’s self-concept
What is a social comparison?
A process by which consumers evaluate themselves by comparing themselves with others (e.g., particularly comparisons with idealised images of people in advertising)
What is a downward comparison? (Social comparison)
This occurs when people compare themselves to people who are worse off.
What is an upward comparison? (Social comparison)
This occurs when people compare themselves to people who are better than they are.
What does self-esteem advertising attempt to do?
Change product attitudes by stimulating positive feelings about the self (e.g., you look lovely today)
What is the ideal self?
A person's conception of how he/she would like to be.
Partially moulded by elements of consumer's culture (e.g. mass media)
What is the actual self?
A person’s realistic appraisal of the qualities he/she does and does not possess.
What is fantasy?
A self-induced shift in consciousness
What are fantasy appeals?
Marketing comms aimed at individuals with large discrepancy between
their real and ideal selves.
Can a person have multiple selves?
Yes, a person can have as many selves as he or she has different social roles. The situation we are in defines the self we are.
e.g. woman, daughter, wife, mother, actress, model, spokesperson, philanthropist
What is symbolic interactionism?
Individuals interact with society at large and with reference groups to determine how behaviour should be structured.
Individuals are assumed to related to objects or events based on their symbolic meaning (e.g., blue jeans—informality) given by society.
We tend to pattern our behavior on the perceived expectation of others.
“Who am I in this situation?” The answer to the question is greatly influenced by “Who do other people think I am?”
What is the Looking-Glass Self?
We imagine how we appear to other people.
We imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present.
If we think the evaluation is favourable (unfavourable), our self concept is enhance (diminished).
The results of individual imagination might produce incorrect interpretations.
What is self-consciousness?
An awareness of oneself magnified by the belief that others are watching intently
What is symbolic self-completion theory?
Suggests people who have an incomplete self-definition (e.g., ideal self) tend to complete this identity by acquiring and displaying symbols associated with it.
e.g., Adolescent boys may use “macho” products.
Self-image congruence models suggest what?
Products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self.
What is the extended self?
External objects that consumers consider a part of themselves
What are the four levels of the extended self?
(1) Individual Level: personal possessions
(2) Family Level: residence and furnishings
(3) Community Level: neighbourhood or town
(4) Group Level: social groups (e.g., sports)
Society, traditionally, stresses agentic goals to men, which means what?
Stresses self assertion and mastery.
Society, traditionally, stresses communal goals to women, which means what?
Stresses affiliation and harmonious relations
What is an autonomic decision?
When one family member chooses a product.