Week 9 - Groups and Social Connections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 9 - Groups and Social Connections Deck (47)
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What are reference groups?

An actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behaviour.

Some people are more influential than others in affecting consumers’ product preferences.


A strong reference group influence on brand selected and weak reference group on product purchase is called what?

Public necessities e.g. wristwatch, car


A weak reference group influence on brand selected and weak reference group on product purchase is called what?

Private necessities e.g. mattress, fridge


A strong reference group influence on brand selected and strong reference group on product purchase is called what?

Public luxuries e.g. sailboat


A weak reference group influence on brand selected and weak reference group on product purchase is called what?

Private luxuries e.g. TV game


What is referent power?

When a person admires a person or group and tries to imitate them


What is information power?

Power from merely possessing valuable info that others do not have access to (e.g. editors of trade publications)


What is legitimate power?

Granted to people by virtue of social agreements (e.g. authorities)


What is expert power?

Power based on possessing specific knowledge about a content area


What is reward power?

When a person or group has the means to provide positive reinforcement


What is coercive power?

Influence through social or physical intimidation


What is normative influence?

The reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct (e.g. our family's influence)


What is comparative influence?

When decisions about specific brands or activities are affected (e.g. a club that you belong to)


What is a brand community?

A set of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest in a product.


What is a consumer tribe?

A group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or product.

Tribal marketing: seeks such groups as target markets


What are aspirational reference groups?

Comprised of idealised figures such as successful business people, athletes or performers


What are membership reference groups?

Ordinary people whose consumption activities provide informational social influence.


Likelihood that people will become part of a consumer's membership reference group is affected by:

Propinquity: physical nearness.

Frequency of contact: liking persons or things simply as a result of seeing them more often (mere exposure phenomenon).

Group Cohesiveness: degree that members of a group are attracted to each other and value their group membership.


What are avoidance groups?

Groups that consumers purposely try to distance themselves from (e.g., nerds, druggies).

The motivation to distance oneself from a
negative reference group can be as powerful
or more powerful than the desire to please a positive group.


What is deindividuation?

The more people in a group, the less likely that one group member will be singled out for attention. The process in which individual identities become submerged within a group is called deindividuation.


What is social loafing?

When people do not devote as much to a task when their contribution is part of a larger group effort


What is a risky shift effect?

Group members are willing to consider riskier alternatives subsequent to group discussion.


What is diffusion of responsibility? (Risky shift effect)

As more people are involved in a decision, each individual is less accountable for the outcome


What is a value hypothesis? (Risky shift effect)

Riskiness is a culturally valued characteristic to which individuals feel pressure to conform


What is decision polarisation?

Whichever direction the group members were leaning toward before discussion becomes more extreme (either riskier or more conservative) in that direction after discussion


What is conformity?

A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure


What are norms?

Informal rules that govern behaviour


What are the factors influencing the likelihood of conformity?

Cultural pressures - different cultures encourage conformity to varying degrees.

Fear of deviance - the group punishes deviant behaviours.

Commitment - the more dedication, the stronger the follower (especially as the principle of least interest suggests that the person that is least interested in staying in the group has the most power).

Group unanimity, size, and expertise - as the group gains power, compliance increases.

Susceptibility to interpersonal influence - the individual’s need to identify or enhance his or her image in the opinion of significant others (consumers who are low on this trait are called role-relaxed).


What is Social Comparison Theory?

Asserts that people look to the behaviour of others to increase the stability of their self-evaluation.

Consumers are selective about whom the use for benchmarks:
Generally people tend to choose a co-oriented peer: a person of equivalent standing (e.g., similar to me)


What is reactance? (resisting conformity)

The negative emotional state that results when we are deprived of our freedom to choose