What is volitional behaviour?
When consumers feel free to act in a way they wish
Attitudes are expected to be consistent with what?
Behaviour (e.g., positive evaluation on brand A vs. brand purchase; attitudes toward blood donation vs. actual blood donation)
However sometimes other circumstances intervene so other situation factors might temporarily alter the attitude–behaviour relationship.
Attitudes have direction and intensity. What is direction?
Also known as valence. May be unfavourable or favourable.
Attitudes have direction and intensity. What is intensity?
STRENGTH with which consumer can hold an attitude (e.g. attitude score: 7 vs 10; 10 is the highest attitude)
CONFIDENCE is degree to which consumer believes their attitude is ‘right’. (e.g. attitude score: 7 – but attitude confidence can be different)
What is Functional Theory of Attitudes?
Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person
What are Katz’s attitude functions?
Utilitarian function (e.g., does the product give you pleasure or pain? Attitudes formed. You avoid the product if your attitudes are negative)
Value-expressive function (e.g., I like or dislike X—expression of one’s central value of self-concept)
Ego-defensive function (e.g., I don’t like X—because the use of X may compromise my images)
Knowledge function: Attitudes provide meaning (knowledge) for life. It allows us to predict what is likely to happen (e.g., I know that he likes or dislikes X; Thus, I can predict his certain behaviour that is related to X)
An attitude can serve more than one function, but generally one will be dominant.
An attitude has what two components?
Emotion (feel): the way a consumer feels about an attitude object.
Cognition (learn): the beliefs a consumer holds about an attitude object.
When a respondent is ambivalent about an object, which contributes more: feelings or thoughts?
When an attitude object is important to the respondent, which contributes more: feelings or thoughts?
Thoughts take on a dominant or equal role.
The hierarchy of effects model explains the relationship between what?
Consumer feelings (FEEL), thoughts (LEARN) and behaviours (DO). It’s sequential.
What is Standard Learning Hierarchy (of the hierarchy of effects model)?
Consumer approaches the product decision as a problem-solving process. Assumes that the consumer is highly involved in the purchase decision
What is the Low-Involvement Hierarchy (of the hierarchy of effects model)?
Low involvement products - consumer doesn’t have strong initial preference. Consumer acts on limited knowledge and forms an evaluation after product trial.
What is the Experiential Hierarchy (of the hierarchy of effects model)?
Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions. Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product (emotional contagion)
What is a one-sided message? (changing the cognitive ‘learning’ component of attitudes)
Supportive argument, presenting 1 or more positive product attributes
What is a two-sided message? (changing the cognitive ‘learning’ component of attitudes)
Use both positive and negative information.
Refutational argument: Address a negative issue then dismiss it.
More credible in general.
What are the two options when it comes to drawing conclusions? (changing the cognitive ‘learning’ component of attitudes)
- Do it on behalf on consumers: works better when consumer’s motivation is low and message is complicated
- Let them draw their own conclusions: create strong attitudes
What is comparative advertising?
A strategy in which a message features two or more recognisably presented brands and compares them in terms of specific attributes.
When might comparative advertising be particularly effective?
For new products trying to position themselves in the market.
What are the three emotion dimensions of “feel” ads?(Changing the Emotional Component of Attitudes (‘Feel’))
Why is humour a risky strategy and when is it more effective? (Changing the Emotional Component of Attitudes (‘Feel’))
Because humour varies between individuals.
More effective when the brand is clearly identified and humour does not distract.
Fear is used to emphasise what and is most effective when? (Changing the Emotional Component of Attitudes (‘Feel’))
Emphasise negative consequences of not changing behaviour.
Effective when the threat is immediate and accompanied with a solution to resolve the threat.
What are the basic psychological principles that influence people to change their minds of comply? (6)
Reciprocity – more likely to give if first we receive (e.g., free offering)
Scarcity – items are more attractive when they aren’t available (e.g., limited edition)
Authority – more authoritative sources are more believable
Consistency – people try not to contradict themselves
Liking – we agree with those we like or admire
Consensus – we consider others before we decide what to do (e.g., seeing a list of donor affects a donation decision)
What is classical conditioning?
Object is repeatedly paired with a stimulus.
What is instrumental conditioning?
Consumption of the object is positively reinforced.
What are complex cognitive processes?
Learnt and reinforced behaviour such as modelling behaviour (e.g. observational learning)
What is The Consistency Principle? (or Principle of Cognitive Consistency)
Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviours and will seek consistency with other experiences.
“I like brand X, because it tastes terrible” Consistent?
“I like brand Y, because it does not work” Consistent?
“I like brand Z, but I don’t want to buy it” Consistent?
What is the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance?
When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes and behaviours, they will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behaviour.
What is the Self-Perception Theory?
People develop their attitudes by observing their own behaviour and concluding what attitudes must have caused it, especially when there is no previous attitude due to a lack of experience and/or the emotional response is ambiguous.
Theory suggests that people maintain consistency by inferring that we must have a positive attitude toward an object if we have bought or consumed it (assuming a freely-made choice).
What is the foot-in-the-door technique of the self-perception theory?
The initial commitment on the small request will change one’s self image, therefore giving reasons for agreeing with the subsequent, larger request.
It is because people observe their own behaviours and thus infer they must have a preference for those products.
What is Social Judgement Theory?
People compare an incoming new message about an issue with their existing attitude about that particular issue, and this comparison determines their response to the message (i.e., attitude change).
What is latitude of acceptance? (Social Judgement Theory)
The range of message positions a person sees as reasonable or acceptable
What is latitude of rejection?(Social Judgement Theory)
The range of message positions a person sees as unreasonable or objectionable.
What is latitude of non-commitment? (Social Judgement Theory)
Neither acceptance nor rejection.
What is the assimilation effect? (Social Judgement Theory)
When new information falls within the latitude of acceptance. When this happens, the consumer will shift their pre-existing attitudes in the direction of the new information: more positive.
What is the contrast effect? (Social judgement theory)
When new information falls within the latitude of rejection. When this happens, the consumer will shift his/her attitudes away from the new message: More negative –> Boomerang Effect
What things must you research for social judgement theory?
- Current (pre-existing) attitudes
- Widths of the latitudes of acceptance and rejection
What is Balance Theory?
Human beings are motivated to maintain consistency or harmony among thoughts, feelings and behaviours because people seek to avoid tension or dissonance.
Thus, people will change their relations (attitudes) in order to avoid dissonance.
Based on the consistency principle.
What three entities does the Balance Theory specifically address?
- A person (self, perceiver, or observer)
- Another person
- Attitude object (e.g. thing, event, action, person, etc)
Attitude models have been developed to…?
Specify and explore the different elements that work together to affect evaluations of attitude objects
Name 5 attitude models
- Fishbein Model
- Theory of Reasoned Action
- Theory of Planned Behaviour
- Model of Goal-Directed
- Theory of Trying
What do multi-attribute models assume?
A consumer’s attitude towards an attitude object will depend on the beliefs they have about several attributes of the object.
Basic multi-attribute models specify what three elements?
Attributes: characteristics of the attitude object
Beliefs: cognitions about the specific attitude object
Importance Weights: the relative priority of an attribute to the consumer.
The Fishbein Model measures what three components of attitude?
(1) Overall attitude
(2) Salient beliefs
What is the assumption of the Fishbein Model?
Ability to identify all relevant choice attributes, weigh them and sum. This may not always be true.
The Theory of Reasoned Action is an extension of the Fishbein Model. It has several important additions, which improve its ability to predict behaviour. What are some of the additions.
Past purchase behaviour is a better predictor of future behaviour than behavioural intention.
How someone feels about buying due to the perceived consequences of a purchase.
What is a subjective norm (SN)? (The Theory of Reasoned Action)
What we believe others think we should do
What is a normative belief (NB)? (The Theory of Reasoned Action)
When we think that others believe an action should or should not be taken.
What is a motivation to comply (MC)? (The Theory of Reasoned Action)
Degree to which consumers take into account anticipated reactions of others.
To address the gap between attitudes and behaviour, the Theory of Planned Behaviour includes: (3)
(1) Attitude towards behaviour
(2) The subjective norm (social pressure) and
(3) Perceived behavioural control (i.e. belief that you can control a situation and make changes).
The theory of planned behaviour has been applied directly to what kind of activities? (Business or leisure)
What is a limitation of the theory of planned behaviour?
The assumption that intentions and behaviours are driven by cognitive processes
What is the Model of Goal Directed Behaviour?
Builds on the theory of planned behaviour, but also considers the anticipated emotions and past experience the consumer has had with the product.
Anticipated emotions linked to goals provide a powerful motivator for behaviour.
Desire: central to attitude formation.
What is the Theory of Trying?
States that the criterion of behaviour in the reasoned action model should be replaced with trying to reach a goal. Additional factors might intervene between intent and performance.
The Theory of Trying includes several components to account for complex situations in which many factors help/hinder chances of turning intentions in actions. This includes: (4)
Amount of control a person has over situation.
Expectations of success or failure in achieving goal.
Social norms related to attaining the goal.
Attitude towards the process of trying.