Flashcards in Week 6 - Attitudes and Attitude Change Deck (54)
What is volitional behaviour?
When consumers feel free to act in a way they wish
Attitudes are expected to be consistent with what?
Behaviour (e.g., positive evaluation on brand A vs. brand purchase; attitudes toward blood donation vs. actual blood donation)
However sometimes other circumstances intervene so other situation factors might temporarily alter the attitude–behaviour relationship.
Attitudes have direction and intensity. What is direction?
Also known as valence. May be unfavourable or favourable.
Attitudes have direction and intensity. What is intensity?
STRENGTH with which consumer can hold an attitude (e.g. attitude score: 7 vs 10; 10 is the highest attitude)
CONFIDENCE is degree to which consumer believes their attitude is ‘right’. (e.g. attitude score: 7 – but attitude confidence can be different)
What is Functional Theory of Attitudes?
Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person
What are Katz's attitude functions?
Utilitarian function (e.g., does the product give you pleasure or pain? Attitudes formed. You avoid the product if your attitudes are negative)
Value-expressive function (e.g., I like or dislike X—expression of one’s central value of self-concept)
Ego-defensive function (e.g., I don’t like X—because the use of X may compromise my images)
Knowledge function: Attitudes provide meaning (knowledge) for life. It allows us to predict what is likely to happen (e.g., I know that he likes or dislikes X; Thus, I can predict his certain behaviour that is related to X)
An attitude can serve more than one function, but generally one will be dominant.
An attitude has what two components?
Emotion (feel): the way a consumer feels about an attitude object.
Cognition (learn): the beliefs a consumer holds about an attitude object.
When a respondent is ambivalent about an object, which contributes more: feelings or thoughts?
When an attitude object is important to the respondent, which contributes more: feelings or thoughts?
Thoughts take on a dominant or equal role.
The hierarchy of effects model explains the relationship between what?
Consumer feelings (FEEL), thoughts (LEARN) and behaviours (DO). It's sequential.
What is Standard Learning Hierarchy (of the hierarchy of effects model)?
Consumer approaches the product decision as a problem-solving process. Assumes that the consumer is highly involved in the purchase decision
What is the Low-Involvement Hierarchy (of the hierarchy of effects model)?
Low involvement products - consumer doesn't have strong initial preference. Consumer acts on limited knowledge and forms an evaluation after product trial.
What is the Experiential Hierarchy (of the hierarchy of effects model)?
Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions. Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product (emotional contagion)
What is a one-sided message? (changing the cognitive 'learning' component of attitudes)
Supportive argument, presenting 1 or more positive product attributes
What is a two-sided message? (changing the cognitive 'learning' component of attitudes)
Use both positive and negative information.
Refutational argument: Address a negative issue then dismiss it.
More credible in general.
What are the two options when it comes to drawing conclusions? (changing the cognitive 'learning' component of attitudes)
1. Do it on behalf on consumers: works better when consumer's motivation is low and message is complicated
2. Let them draw their own conclusions: create strong attitudes
What is comparative advertising?
A strategy in which a message features two or more recognisably presented brands and compares them in terms of specific attributes.
When might comparative advertising be particularly effective?
For new products trying to position themselves in the market.
What are the three emotion dimensions of "feel" ads?(Changing the Emotional Component of Attitudes (‘Feel’))
Why is humour a risky strategy and when is it more effective? (Changing the Emotional Component of Attitudes (‘Feel’))
Because humour varies between individuals.
More effective when the brand is clearly identified
and humour does not distract.
Fear is used to emphasise what and is most effective when? (Changing the Emotional Component of Attitudes (‘Feel’))
Emphasise negative consequences of not changing
Effective when the threat is immediate and
accompanied with a solution to resolve the threat.
What are the basic psychological principles that influence people to change their minds of comply? (6)
Reciprocity – more likely to give if first we receive (e.g., free offering)
Scarcity – items are more attractive when they aren’t available (e.g., limited edition)
Authority – more authoritative sources are more believable
Consistency – people try not to contradict themselves
Liking – we agree with those we like or admire
Consensus – we consider others before we decide what to do (e.g., seeing a list of donor affects a donation decision)
What is classical conditioning?
Object is repeatedly paired with a stimulus.
What is instrumental conditioning?
Consumption of the object is positively reinforced.
What are complex cognitive processes?
Learnt and reinforced behaviour such as modelling behaviour (e.g. observational learning)
What is The Consistency Principle? (or Principle of Cognitive Consistency)
Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviours and will seek consistency with other experiences.
“I like brand X, because it tastes terrible” Consistent?
“I like brand Y, because it does not work” Consistent?
“I like brand Z, but I don’t want to buy it” Consistent?
What is the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance?
When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes and behaviours, they will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behaviour.
What is the Self-Perception Theory?
People develop their attitudes by observing their own behaviour and concluding what attitudes must have caused it, especially when there is no previous attitude due to a lack of experience and/or the emotional response is ambiguous.
Theory suggests that people maintain consistency by inferring that we must have a positive attitude toward an object if we have bought or consumed it (assuming a freely-made choice).
What is the foot-in-the-door technique of the self-perception theory?
The initial commitment on the small request will change one’s self image, therefore giving reasons for agreeing with the subsequent, larger request.
It is because people observe their own behaviours and thus infer they must have a preference for those products.