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Flashcards in week 3 Deck (18):

individual perception

- process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions

- in order to give meaning to their environment


factors affecting perception

- factors in the perceiver
-> attitudes, motives, interests, experience, expectations

- factors in the target
-> novelty
-> motion
-> size
-> background
-> proximity
-> similarity

- factors in the situation
-> time
-> work and social setting


different versions of self

- 3 self representations
-> personal self
--> characteristics or traits that differentiate you from others within ur social context

-> relational self
--> characteristics or traits that are shared with your relationship partners & define your role / position

-> collective self
--> characteristics or traits that differentiate in-group members from members of relevant out groups

- Individuals try to achieve identity in 3 ways
-> unique traits
-> dyadic relationships
-> group memberships


characteristics of self-concept

- complexity
-> number and distinctiveness of the roles or identities that you perceive about yourself

- internal consistency
-> extent to which you require or exhibit similar personality values, and attributes across multiple selves

- clarity
-> extent to which you clearly and confidently defined internally consistent and stable across time


self enhancement

- drive to promote or perceive a positive self-view
-> competent, attractive, lucky

- outcomes
-> better personal adjustment and mental and physical health
-> inflates personal causation and probability of success
-> overestimates future returns blames the situation for mistakes


self - verification

- motivation to confirm and maintain our self-concept

- stabilises our self-concept

- people prefer feedback consistent with their self concept

- outcomes
-> selective attention, acceptance and memory of information consistent with our self-concept



- self esteem
-> extent to which ppl like, respect and are satisfied with themselves

- self efficacy
-> belief in one's ability, motivation, role perceptions and situation to complete a task successfully

- locus of control
-> general belief about personal control over life events



- helpful bot not efficient

- help us process information through attention and memory

- ambiguous information will be interpreted within the confines of the schema

- tend to notice and remember things that fit into our already existing schemas

- contradicting information will cause us to start looking for a new one


attribution theory

- when we observe an individuals behaviour, attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused

- distinctiveness
-> does this person act differently in other situations

-> do other people act this way in this situation

-> did this person act this way in this situation in the past?

- internally caused
-> those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual

- externally caused
-> behaviour is seen as resulting from outside causes, forced.


fundamental attribution error

- tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors
- overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors


self - serving bias

- individuals attribute their own successes to internal factors


shortcuts in judging others
- selective perception

- any characteristic that makes a person,object or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived


shortcuts in judging others
- false consensus effect

- overestimate similarity with other beliefs or traits to our own


shortcuts in judging others
- primacy effect

- form an opinion based on our first impressions


shotcuts in judging others
- recency effect

- most recent information dominates perceptions


shortcuts in judging others
- contrast effects

- do not evaluate a person in isolation
-> our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered


shortcuts in judging others
- halo effect

- occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic


discuss how stereotyping, attribution, self-fulfilling prophecy, halo, false - consensus, primacy and recency effects influence the perceptual process

- stereotyping
-> occurs when ppl assign traits to others based on their membership in a social cat.

- enhances self concept, lays foundation for prejudice and discrimination

- attribution process involves deciding whether behaviour or event is caused by internal or external factors.

- decided by perceptions of consistency, distictiveness and concensus of the behaviour

- subject to self serving bias and fundamental attribution error

- self fulfilling
-> expectations about another cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations