Week 4.2 Hematologic Disease Flashcards Preview

Advanced Clinical Practice Complex Patient > Week 4.2 Hematologic Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4.2 Hematologic Disease Deck (33)
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1

what organs are involved in the hematopoietic system

lymph nodes,
spleen
kidneys
thymus
bone marrow
liver

2

the components of whole blood

plasmas (antibodies, nutrients and removes waste)
erythrocytes (RBC: hemoglobin and O2 and CO2 transport)
leukocytes (WBC: immune response)
thrombocytes (Platelets: controls clotting)

3

are primary hematologic diseases common

not really

4

what kinds of blood diseases are common

from medications

5

what can long term use of NSAIDs causes

gastric and peptic ulcers, bleeding and iron deficiency

6

what can chemotherapy cause

leukopenia, which can cause infection and flu like symptoms of fever, shills, tissue inflammation, mucus membrane ulcers, mouth throat and esophageal pain

7

what kinds of treatment can cause thrombocytopenia and what is this

decreased platelets can lead to easily bruising and spontaneous bleeding, which can be caused by RA or cancer treatment

8

what are the two main considerations PT must consider with patients

bleeding and clotting

9

what are minimal effort physical exertion symptoms

dyspnea
chest pain
palpitations
severe weakness
fatigue

10

what are integumentary symptoms

pallor of the hands, nails and lips,
cyanosis or clubbing
wounds
easily bleeding and bruising

11

what are some life threatening symptoms

blood in stool or pain and swelling in joints

12

what are the common erythrocyte disorders

anemia (too few)
polycythemia (too many)

13

poikilocytosis

abnormally shaped erythrocytes

14

anisocytosis

abnormal variation in size of erythrocytes

15

hypochromia

erythrocytes deficient in Hg

16

is anemia a disease or symptom

symptom

17

what is anemia

reduction in the O2 capacity of blood due to abnormal quality or quantity of RBC

18

what can cause anemia

blood loss,
increased destruction of erythrocytes
decreased proaction of erythrocytes

19

what are risk factors for anemia

diet deficiency of B12
intestinal disorders
menstruation
pregnancy
chronic conditions (kidney failure, diabetes, ulcers)
family hx
infections, blood diseases, autoimmune, chemicals, medications

20

what are the 4 broad categories of anemia

iron deficiency
chronic disease or inflammatory
neurologic conditions
infectious diseases

21

what is the most common form of iron deficiency

GI bleeding from NSAIDS

22

what is pernicious anemia

can't make enough RBC because not enough B12. at an increased risk hip fracture

23

what are some infectious diseases that cause anemia

TB, cancer, AIDS

24

when might people start showing symptoms

when hematocrit drops below 1/2 of normal

25

anemia S+S

-skin pallor
-fatigue
-dyspnea with exertion
-chest pain
-decreased diastolic BP
-NS malfunctions (HA, drowsy, dizzy, slow though processes, depression, polyneuropathy)

26

what physical characteristics do we want to observe if we suspect anemia

skin color, warmth nail beds, oral mucosa and conjunctiva

27

how do we want to test the skin

at heart level

28

what is sickle cell

abnormal shape of RBC, they cannot enter the cells anymore because they lost the ability to deform. This can cause severe pain, infections, organ damage.

29

what 2 things results from sickle cell anemia

chronic hemolytic anemia and vasoocclusion

30

does sickle cell have a lower than normal RBS count

yes, because they die more quickly, and the body cannot make up for it