Week 4.1 Screening for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Flashcards Preview

Advanced Clinical Practice Complex Patient > Week 4.1 Screening for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4.1 Screening for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Deck (64)
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1

what are some general health endocrine symptoms

fatigue, unexplained weight change, weakness

2

what are some psychological and cognitive S+S of endo

personality changes, memory loss, confusion, irritability

3

what are some GI changes

nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dysphagia, diarrhea, constipation

4

what are some urogenital changes

incontinence, intermittent urine stream, dribbling, straining to void, impotence

5

what are some MSK changes

muscle weakness and cramps, arthralgia, myalgia, stiffness and bone pain

6

what are some sensory changes

paresthesias and numbness

7

dermatologic changes

foot ulcerations, edema, dry and coarse skin, impaired wound healing

8

MISC changes

temperature intolerance, visual changes, OH, increased bruising and increased thirst.

9

what is the main function of the endocrine system, and how does it do this

maintain body homeostasis, and it does this by hormones, and regulating and relaying information between the cells.

10

how many endocrine cells are there and what is the largest,

9, not including the largest which is adipose.

11

what does the endocrine system work to coordinate

metabolism, water balance, BP, stress response, sexual reproduction

12

the endocrine system and its organs are controlled by the...

CNS

13

what is the psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) system

this is interactive biological signaling that uses the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to regulate endocrine, behavioral and neural responses

14

the hypothalamus is the center for

homeostasis

15

what is the posterior pituitary controlled by

signals from the hypothalamus

16

what is the anterior pituitary controlled by

the hormones called hypothalamic releasing and hypothalamic inhibitory hormones

17

what is a primary endocrine pathophysiology

affects the glands

18

what is a secondary patho

affects the pituitary glans, by altering secretions. This can be caused by iatrogenic things, like surgery, chemo, removal of the glands, therapy fro non-endo things, and large dose corticosteroids

19

what do large doses of corticosteroids cause

Cushings

20

what is tertiary patho

affects the hypothalamus

21

what pathophysiology affect the pituitary gland

-Diabetes insipidus
-syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH)
-acromegaly

22

describe what diabetes insidious is

this is when you get a lack of secretion of vasopressin and ADH, which is usually involved in stimulating the distal tubules to absorb water. So when these two aren't secreted, you do not get the re-absorption of water, and it is lost in the urine. this causes severe water loss and dehydration

23

what are the two types of DI

central (CDI) and nephrogenic (NDI)

24

what is the cause of primary/idiopathic CDI

autoimmune

25

what is secondary CDI

-pituitary trauma (neurosurgery or head trauma)
-infections (meningitis, encephalitis)
-trauma (cranopharyngioma, pituitary adenoma, suprasellar meningioma, pineal gland)
-anorexia
-vascular lesions (aneurysms)

26

what causes NDI

defective hormone receptors thanks to
-medications like lithium, demeclocycline, amphotericin, colchicine
-alcohol imbalances (hyper and hypo kalmia)
-renal diseases (sacoidosis, multiple myeloma, pyelonephritis, SLE)

27

what are the signs and symptoms of DI

polyuria
nocturia
polydipsia
dehydration
decreased urine specific gravity
increased serum sodium

28

what is syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)

this is when you have excessive vasopressin, so you have a lot of water retention. It is stored in the cells, and causes water intoxication. This can then cause swelling in the brain, and decreased urine output, headaches and hyponatremia because of the high concentrations of water.

29

what are the 3 risk factors for SIADH

-pituitary damage (due to infection or trauma or neoplasm)
-secretion of vasopressin like substances
-thoracic pressure changes from compression of pulmonary or cardiac pressure receptors or both

30

what are the signs and symptoms of SIADH

headache, confusion, lethargy
decreased urine output
weight gain without edema
seizure
muscle cramping
vomiting and diarrhea
increased urine specific gravity (>1.03)
decreased serum sodium (<135)
-swelling in the brain, and not enough sodium in the muscles.