Week 6 - Sensation & Perception 2 Flashcards Preview

PSY112 - Brain & Behaviour > Week 6 - Sensation & Perception 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 6 - Sensation & Perception 2 Deck (59):
1

What is sound caused by?

Vibrations

2

Wave frequency =

Pitch

3

Wave amplitude =

Loudness

4

Wave complexity =

Timbre

5

The human ear is sensitive to mechanical vibration from what frequency (Hz)?

20-20,000Hz

6

Explain the Place Theory of pitch perception

Our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane.

For high pitch, hairs in specific areas of the basilar membrane activate specific regions in the primary auditory cortex

7

Explain the Frequency Theory of pitch perception

The frequency of the nerve impulses corresponds to the frequency of a tone, which allows us to detect its pitch.

For low pitch, the rate of action potentials signals frequency of sound wave (up to 100Hz)

8

Explain the Volley Theory of pitch perception

Groups of neurons of the auditory system respond to a sound by firing action potentials slightly out of phase with one another so that when combined, a greater frequency of sound can be encoded

Combinations of action potentials slightly de-synchronised collectively signal the frequency of sound wave/

9

What is Conductive hearing loss?

Problems in the outer/middle ear

10

What is Sensorineural hearing loss?

Problems in the inner ear, auditory nerve and auditory cortex

11

3 causes of hearing loss

genetic
disease/injury
age-related

12

What is the relationship between olfaction and gustation?

They work together to enhance liking or disliking some foods

13

Olfaction is what?

smell

14

Gustation is what?

taste

15

Olfaction is like the lock and key analogy, why?

Because olfactory receptors code for one odour

16

How many odours can humans identify?

2000-4000

17

What types/groups of people are considered to have better olfaction? (3)

young people
females
non-smokers

18

What are the 4 main gustations? and what is the extra 5th one that has recently been added?

Sweet
Sour
Bitter
Salty
Umami

19

Smell and taste converge on parts of what system?

limbic (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala)

20

What is the Somatosensory System?

Specialised receptors within the skin detect physical stimuli from the external environment eg temp and pain

21

What are the 3 classes of skin receptors?

Pressure - "mechanoreceptors"
Temperature - "thermoreceptors"
Pain - "nociceptors"

22

What is the Phantom Limb illusion?

A vivid sensation that a missing limb is still present

23

How can Phantom Limb pain be relieved?

With a mirror box

24

What is Congenital Pain Insensitivity?

The inability to feel pain

25

What are the 5 body senses?

Touch, Pain, Temperature, Body position, balance

26

What is proprioception?

Perception or awareness of the position and movement of the body (body position)
- Kinaesthetic sense

27

Where are proprioceptors (stretch and force) located?

The joints, muscles and tendons which provide feedback to the brain

28

What is the Vestibular System?

Sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance (balance)

29

How does the Vestibular System work?

Information is sent to the brainstem and cerebellum to co-ordinate/adjust eye, head and body movements

30

Inner ear balance is supported by what (2) things?

Semicircular canals and otoliths

31

What is the role of perception?

Organisation of sensations into meaningful units that can then be interpreted by the brain

32

What is perception?

An active process by which the brain selects, organises and interprets sensory information

33

What are the 6 principles of perceptual organisation?

top-down and bottom-up processing
perceptual sets/context
perceptual constancy
gestalt principles
motion perception
depth or distance perception

34

What is bottom-up processing?

Detecting and analysing specific features and combining the parts into more complex form
eg you recognise the parts that make up a dog (fur, tail) and then recognise the object as a dog

35

What is top-down processing?

Using prior knowledge to organise and interpret sensations
Select specific features that meet the expectations about a stimulus (you recognise the parts of a dog because you have first recognised the dog as a whole)

36

What is Perceptual Constancy?

Tendency to perceive objects as perceptually stable despite variation in stimulation of sensory receptors

For example, you recognise that small brownish dog in the distance as your neighbour's large golden retriever, so you aren't surprised by the great increase in size (size constancy) or the appearance of the yellow colour (colour constancy) when he comes bounding up. And in spite of the changes in the appearance of the dog moving toward you from a distance, you still perceive the shape as that of a dog (shape constancy) no matter the angle from which it is viewed.

37

What are the 2 compartments of Perceptual constancy?

Shape: We recognise an object as having the same shape when viewed from a different angle

Size: Objects do not differ in size when viewed from different distances

38

What do Gestalt Principles describe?

How visual elements are organised into groups or unified wholes

39

What is the common Gestalt rule?

Whole is greater than the sum of its parts

40

Gestalt =

Whole

41

7 Principles of Gestalt

Simplicity: Our mind perceives everything in its simplest form.

Proximity: Objects and shapes that are close to one another start to form groups. Even if they are very different. We perceive elements as belonging to the same group if they are laid out close together.

Similarity: We perceive elements as belonging to the same group if they look like each other.

Continuation: Elements are visually associated if they are aligned with each other. (xmas tree pencil sharpener)

Closure - We automatically fill in gaps between elements to perceive a complete image

Symmetry: Symmetrical elements are perceived as part of the same group

Figure-Ground: The “figure” is the element in focus, while the “ground” is the background behind the figure.

42

The visual system is organised to do what?

Detect motion

43

What are the two ways to detect movement?
- eyes

Eye is stationary as object moves on the retina
Eye moves to maintain object as same place on the retina

44

What is depth perception?

The organisation of perception into three dimensions

45

What are the 2 visual cues that enable us to judge depth and distance?

Binocular: Visual input from two eyes
Monocular: Visual input from one eye

46

Which cue is primary and which is secondary for distance/depth perception?

Binocular and Monocular

47

Binocular/retinal disparity is also known as?

Stereopsis

48

What is binocular/retinal disparity?

The degree of overlap between the retina in each eye

49

Eyes converge at what size distance?

Small

50

Monocular cues involve things such as (4)?

Relative size
Texture gradient
Height in plane
Shading

51

Explain Perceptual Interpretation

Form, depth, motion perception and constancy explain how sensation is organised into stable recognisable forms

Perceptual interpretation is generating meaning from the stable percepts

52

Examples of where perception has deceived

rubber-hand illusion, Synaethesia, Phantom limb pain

53

What is Synaethesia?

Joining or merging of senses that aren't normally connected.
eg hearing colour, seeing sound

54

What is Synaethesia caused by (brain)?

By cross-modal processing (cross-talk between brain areas) or overlap in brain areas

55

What is Subliminal Perception?

Processing of sensory information that occurs below the level of conscious awareness

Occurs when a stimulus is too weak to be perceived yet a person is influenced by it

56

What can Subliminal Perception do?

Can have a brief short-term impact on behaviours

57

Can effects of Subliminal Perception disappear? When?

Yes, when people are made aware of or suspect subliminal influence

58

What is Extrasensory Perception (ESP)

The perception of events outside the known channels of sensation

59

What are the 3 major types of ESP?

Clairvoyance
Precognition
Telepathy