Flashcards in Week 11 - Human Development Deck (75):
What is Developmental Psychology?
Study of how behaviour changes over time
The impact of genes on behaviour depends on what?
The environment in which the behaviour develops and how the individual responds to that environment
Explain the Nature via Nurture debate in regards to human development
The tendency of individuals with certain genetic predispositions to seek out and create environments that permit the expression of those predispositions
Genetic predisposition can drive us to do what?
Select and create particular environments, leading to the mistaken appearance of a pure effect of nature\
eg extroverts may deliberately engage with others like themelves
Explain Gene Expressions
Environmental influences may actually turn genes on and off throughout our lives
eg rabbit situation where gene is only active at temperatures in the range if 15-25
What is an implication of Gene Expressions
Children with genes that predispose them to anxiety may never become anxious unless a highly stressful event could trigger these genes to become active
What are Epigenetic's?
The study of heritable changes in gene expression (active vs inactive) that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence, a change in phenotype without a change in genotype - which in turn affects how we cells read genes
The study of external modifications to gene expression that turn genes on/off
What do Behavioural Epigenetics provide?
A mechanism through which acquired behavioural and psychological characteristics might be inheritable
What is the Lamarck Hypothesis?
An organism can pass characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring. It is also known as the inheritance of acquired characteristics
What is a Cross-Sectional Design?
A design in which researchers examine people who are of different ages at a single point in time (snapshot approach)
Compared at the same time
What is the main problem with cross-sectional designs?
Cohort Effects: Effects due to the fact that groups lived during one time period, called cohorts, can differ from other cohorts
What is a longitudinal design? Advantages/Disadvantages
Psychologists track the development of the same group of people over time
Help provide causal information as each person serves as his or her own control
What are the 2 things to be cautious of in developmental research?
Assuming that an observed correlation is due to causation (post hoc ergo propter hoc)
Development and experience have bidirectional influence on each other eg parents influence their children's behaviour which in turn influences parents reaction
What are the 4 stages of physical development?
Prenatal and Infant
Toddler and preadolescent
When does the prenatal period of development begin and end?
With conception and ends at birth
What is a fertilised egg called?
A developing baby is called a what until the 8th week of pregnancy?
What is a developing baby called after the 8th week?
What are 4 obstacles to healthy prenatal development?
Low birth weight
Exposure to hazardous environmental influences
Biological influences resulting from genetic disorders or errors in cell duplication during cell division
What is the viability point (the point in pregnancy at which infants can typically survive on their own?
What are low birth weight babies defined as?
less than 2.5kgs
What are teratogens?
Environmental factors that can affect prenatal development negatively
eg cigarette smoking, chicken pox, x-rays
What do reflexes do?
Fulfill important survival needs
eg sucking reflex which is an automatic response to oral stimulation
Toddler and preadolescent Movement milestones include
sitting up, crawling, standing unsupported
Girls typically develop what skills more quickly?
Fine motor skills eg drawing, stringing beads
Boys typically develop what skills more quickly?
Gross motor skills eg jumping and climbing
What age does the brain start to experience growth? To what size and whats the affect?
8-9, to adult size and enables children cognitive capacity to increase
Adolescence begins with what?
the onset of sexual maturity (puberty) which is marked by dramatic bodily changes and intensification in sexual interest
What are primary characteristics?
Directly related to reproductive organs and external genitalia eg penis and scrotum growth, ovary growth
What are secondary characteristics?
Not directly related to reproductive organs and external genitalia
eg facial hair, deeper voice, enlarged breasts and hips
Adults reach their peak levels of strength, stamina and vigour during what age?
What age do we see levels of strength, stamina and vigour decline?
Older adults typically show declines in what areas?
reaction time, balance, coordination
Fertility in males and females declines rapidly after age
What did Paiget believe? (4 stages)
Thinking reorganises at specific transition points
What are the 4 stages in Piagets theory?
Sensorimotor Stage: Birth-2 yrs
Preoperational Stage: 2-7yrs
Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11yrs
Formal Operations Stage: 12+ (adolescence)
Describe the Sensorimotor Stage
No thought beyond immediate physical experience
Children's main source of knowledge, thinking and experience are their physical interactions with the world
What are the 2 concepts in the Sensorimotor Stage and what do they mean?
Assimilation: Children integrate new information learned from experience into their existing understanding of the world eg a child seeing a zebra and calling it a horse
Accommodation: The modification or creation of new schemas as a result of experience eg first time seeing a cow, calling it a horse but then learning its a completely different animal and creating a new schema
Infants in the Sensorimotor Stage have no what?
concept of object permanence (the understanding that objects continue to exists even when out of sight/view)
Describe the Preoperational Stage
Children pass through a stage marked by an ability to construct mental representations of experience
Children in the Preoperational Stage can do what?
Can use such symbols as language, drawings and objects as representations of ideas
Can construct mental representations but cannot perform mental transformations
Children in the Preoperational Stage have what?
Children in the Preoperational Stage are considered to be what? What does that mean?
Egocentric: Cannot see the world through anyone's eyes but their own
What did Piaget develop to test whether children in the Preoperational Stage can perform mental transformations?
Conservation tasks eg water in glass
What is the Concrete Operational Stage? What can children do in this stage?
The stage where children have the ability to perform mental operations but only for physical events
Can understand which actions can or cannot affect concrete objects
Can also perform organisational tasks (eg sorting coins, organise a battle field) but need physical experience as an anchor for their mental representations
Describe the Formal Operations Stage
Emerges in adolescence
Children acquire the capacity to reason about abstract concepts
This is the most sophisticated type of thinking: hypothetical reasoning
What was Vygotsky interested in?
How social and cultural factors influence learning
What did Vygotsky observe?
Parents and other caretakers tend to structure the learning environment for children
What did Vygotsky develop?
The Zone of Proximal Development
What is the The Zone of Proximal Development?
The phase when children are receptive to learning a new skill but are not yet successful at it
- for any given skill, children move from a phase when they cannot learn it, even with assistance, to the zone of proximal development, during which they are ready to make use of scaffolding
What is the theory of mind experiment?
The ability to attribute mental states (such as knowledge) to others and to reflect on one's own mental state
When can children success at the theory of mind experiment?
around 4-5 (earlier than in Piagets model)
What does temperament mean?
Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity
Babies with a highly reactive limbic system are more likely to have what?
Strong reactions to potentially stressful situations
What is Stranger Anxiety?
Refers to the tendency for infants to feel uncomfortable of frightened when approached by someone they do not know
What is Separation Anxiety?
A developmentally normal fear of being away from a trusted care giver
What does attachment refer to?
The bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
The quality of an infant-caregiver bond strongly influences what?
Social relationships throughout the life span
What are the 4 attachment styles?
Traits of Secure attachment style
Child = comfortable
Parent = loving
Traits of Insecure-Avoidant attachment style
Child = independent
Parent = unavailable, dismissive of childs needs
Traits of Insecure-Anxious attachment style
Child = anxious and hesitant to leave
Parent = inconsistent
Traits of Disorganised-Disoriented attachment style
Child = fearful, shifts from love to hostility
Parent = neglectful/abusive
What is imprinting?
whereby early sensory experiences modifies behaviour permanently
When can imprinting occur in humans?
In the first week of life
These environmental factors are influential in early life during temporal windows called?
What are traits of Permissive parenting?
Non-confrontational, lenient, doesn't enforce rules
WARM responsive behaviour
LOW controlling behaviour
What are traits of Authoritative parenting
Assertive, enforces rules
WARM responsive behaviour
HIGH controlling behaviour
What are traits of Uninvolved parenting?
COLD responsive behaviour
LOW controlling behaviour
What are traits of Authoritarian parenting?
High expectations, demands obedience
COLD responsive behaviour
HIGH controlling behaviour
Which parenting style promotes healthy development?
What did Erikson suggest in his stages of social and emotional development? (psychosocial development)
That individuals proceed through several stages of development throughout the life span
Each stage of Erikson's stages corresponds to what?
A developmental period and involves conflict to be solved
As we negotiate each of Erikson's stages what occurs?
We acquire a more fleshed out sense of who we are