Week 2 - Biological Psychology 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 - Biological Psychology 1 Deck (53):
1

The Nervous System is composed of what type pathways and structures?

Nerve pathways and structures

2

What 5 things does the NS mediate aspect of?

Motor Activity
Cognitive Activity
Sensory and Perceptual Activity
Emotional and Behavioural Activity
Physiological Activity

3

What 2 systems is the Nervous System made up of?

The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System

4

What is the main role of the Peripheral Nervous System?

Carries information to and from the CNS

5

What are the 2 compartments (systems) of the PNS?

The Somatic and Autonomic NS

6

What is the role of the Somatic Nervous System?

Conveys sensory information to the CNS and sends motor messages to the muscles.

7

What is the role of the Autonomic Nervous System?

Send and receive information to and from the glands and organs of the body (involuntary). It is involved in basic life functions

8

What are the 2 subparts of the ANS?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS

9

What is the role of the Sympathetic NS?

Readies the body for threats (fight or flight)

10

What is the role of the Parasympathetic NS?

Routine maintenance of energy resources (rest & digest) and decreasing arousal. It calms and maintains energy

11

What is the role of the CNS?

Respond to stimuli and basic life processes

12

2 parts of the CNS?

Brain and Spinal cord

13

What is the role of the Spinal Cord?

Sends information to the brain

14

What is the role of the brain?

Processing information and directs psychological activity and maintains life support

15

What are neurons?

Cells of the NS specialised for receiving and transmitting electrochemical signals

16

How do neurons work?

They send and receive messages from the body to the brain and vice versa by dispersing chemicals called neurotransmitters

17

What is the anatomy of a neuron?

Dendrites
Cell Body
Axon Hillock
Axon (myelin sheath covering) (nodes inside)
Collateral Branches
Terminal Buttons

18

What is the role of Glial Cells? (4)

Repair following injury
Clear up debris
Prevent some substances from entering the brain
Insulate neuron axons (myelin sheath)

19

What is meant by the resting potential of a neuron?

In its resting state, the fluid environment outside the axon is more positively charged than the inside.

20

What are Graded Potentials?

Electrical charges caused by neural signals arriving from the axons of other cells

21

What are the 2 types of Graded Potentials?

Excitatory
Inhibitory

22

Explain Excitatory transmitters

Membrane potential becomes more positive and closer to the threshold (depolarisation) - more likely to fire

23

Explain Inhibitory transmitters

Membrane potential becomes more negative and further away from the threshold (hyperpolarisation)- less likely to fire

24

Where are Excitatory and Inhibitory transmitters summed?

At the axon hillock

25

Action potentials are what? (3)

all or none
uniform in size
travel the length of an axon in order direction

26

The entire process of an action potential takes how long?

1-2ms

27

What is the absolute refractory period?

Brief period of time when another AP cannot occur

28

Explain the step by step process involved in synaptic transmission?

NT are encased in the axon terminals
When an AP is triggered, NT's are released into the synaptic cleft
The NT's attach to receptors (on dendrites or cell body) and produce a GRADED POTENTIAL
The NT is released from the receptor and taken back into the presynaptic cell (reuptake)

29

The chemical process of synaptic transmission is like what?

A lock and key system

30

Define Glutamate (NT) (2 things)
- Role
- What increases/blocks

The main excitatory transmitter in the CNS
- Involved in learning, memory and transfer or sensory
input
- Alcohol and memory enhancers interact with some
glutamate receptors.

31

Define Gaba (3 things)
- Role

The main inhibitory transmitter in the CNS
- Dampens neural activity
- Involved in learning, memory and sleep

32

Define Acetylcholine (ACh) (2 things)
- Role
- What increases/blocks

Involved in muscle contraction (PNS) and cortical arousal (CNS) including aspects of selective attention, sleep and memory.
- Nicotine increases ACh
- Botox blocks ACh

33

Define Noradrenaline (2 things)
- Role
- What increases

Involved in cortical arousal (wakefulness, heart rate) and autonomic nervous system activity
- Meth increases noradrenaline

34

Define Dopamine (4 things)
- Role
- What increases/blocks

Role is motor function and reward (eg food, sex, drugs)
- Increased levels is associated with schizophrenia
- Reduced levels associated with Parkinson's
- Drugs of dependence/rewards increase dopamine

35

Define Serotonin (3 things)
- Role
- What increases

Cortical arousal, mood, sleeping, eating
- SSRI's used to treat depression increase serotonin
- Ecstasy (MDMA) increases serotonin

36

Define Endorphins (2 things)

Involved in pain control and mood elevation (euphoria) eg "runners high"
- Endogenous Opioids

37

Define Anandamide (2 things)

Associated with pain control, eating behaviour, motivation, memory and sleep
- Endogenous cannabinoid

38

What are Psychoactive Drugs?

Any drug that interacts with a NT system and affects mood, arousal and behaviour

39

What are the 2 types of Psychoactive Drugs?

Agonists and Antagonists

40

What do Agonists do?
2 types

Enhance the effect of a neurotransmitter either by increasing the amount and release of by mimicking it and binding to receptors

- Morphine: Binds to endorphin receptors to reduce pain

- Prozac (SSRI's): Reduces serotonin reuptake, increasing its availability

41

What do Antagonists do?
2 types

Inhibit the effect of a given neurotransmitter, either by reducing the amount and release or blocking receptors

- Botox: Blocks release of acetycholine, thereby stopping its effect on muscles/reduces tremors

- Antipsychotics: Block dopamine receptors, reducing action of dopamine

42

What is the Endocrine System?

System of glands that control vital functions by producing hormones (eg growth, metabolism, reproduction)

43

What are Hormones?

Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands

44

What do hormones do?

Travel through the blood stream and bind to cell receptor sites in organs of the body (allow a global response)

45

What is the 3 step process in the ANS 'fight or flight'

1. Activation of the sympathetic system (muscle stimulation, heart rate

2. Response

3. Activation of the parasympathetic branch

46

What is the role of the Hypothalamus?

Regulate both ANS and endocrine system (by activating the pituitary gland)

47

What is the Pituitary Gland? Role?

The master gland
It releases hormones which have a direct effects or which activate glands further down the chain

48

What is Oxytocin and what is its role?

The love molecule
Involved in birth contractions, milk production, maternal/romantic love, interpersonal trust

49

What does the HPA Axis do?

Works in conjunction with the sympathetic system to respond to stress

50

Role of the Adrenal Glands (2)

Release adrenaline and cortisol, triggering fight or flight response
- Designed for immediate action (when chronically activated, can lead to long term health problems

51

Role of the Thyroid Gland

Releases growth and metabolism hormones. Hypothyroidism can be associated with fatigue and depression

52

Role of the Pancreas

Controls blood sugar levels (produces insulin)

53

Role of Gonads (testes/ovaries)

Release sex hormones (oestrogen/testosterone)