Flashcards in Week 2 - Biological Psychology 1 Deck (53):
The Nervous System is composed of what type pathways and structures?
Nerve pathways and structures
What 5 things does the NS mediate aspect of?
Sensory and Perceptual Activity
Emotional and Behavioural Activity
What 2 systems is the Nervous System made up of?
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
What is the main role of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Carries information to and from the CNS
What are the 2 compartments (systems) of the PNS?
The Somatic and Autonomic NS
What is the role of the Somatic Nervous System?
Conveys sensory information to the CNS and sends motor messages to the muscles.
What is the role of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Send and receive information to and from the glands and organs of the body (involuntary). It is involved in basic life functions
What are the 2 subparts of the ANS?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS
What is the role of the Sympathetic NS?
Readies the body for threats (fight or flight)
What is the role of the Parasympathetic NS?
Routine maintenance of energy resources (rest & digest) and decreasing arousal. It calms and maintains energy
What is the role of the CNS?
Respond to stimuli and basic life processes
2 parts of the CNS?
Brain and Spinal cord
What is the role of the Spinal Cord?
Sends information to the brain
What is the role of the brain?
Processing information and directs psychological activity and maintains life support
What are neurons?
Cells of the NS specialised for receiving and transmitting electrochemical signals
How do neurons work?
They send and receive messages from the body to the brain and vice versa by dispersing chemicals called neurotransmitters
What is the anatomy of a neuron?
Axon (myelin sheath covering) (nodes inside)
What is the role of Glial Cells? (4)
Repair following injury
Clear up debris
Prevent some substances from entering the brain
Insulate neuron axons (myelin sheath)
What is meant by the resting potential of a neuron?
In its resting state, the fluid environment outside the axon is more positively charged than the inside.
What are Graded Potentials?
Electrical charges caused by neural signals arriving from the axons of other cells
What are the 2 types of Graded Potentials?
Explain Excitatory transmitters
Membrane potential becomes more positive and closer to the threshold (depolarisation) - more likely to fire
Explain Inhibitory transmitters
Membrane potential becomes more negative and further away from the threshold (hyperpolarisation)- less likely to fire
Where are Excitatory and Inhibitory transmitters summed?
At the axon hillock
Action potentials are what? (3)
all or none
uniform in size
travel the length of an axon in order direction
The entire process of an action potential takes how long?
What is the absolute refractory period?
Brief period of time when another AP cannot occur
Explain the step by step process involved in synaptic transmission?
NT are encased in the axon terminals
When an AP is triggered, NT's are released into the synaptic cleft
The NT's attach to receptors (on dendrites or cell body) and produce a GRADED POTENTIAL
The NT is released from the receptor and taken back into the presynaptic cell (reuptake)
The chemical process of synaptic transmission is like what?
A lock and key system
Define Glutamate (NT) (2 things)
- What increases/blocks
The main excitatory transmitter in the CNS
- Involved in learning, memory and transfer or sensory
- Alcohol and memory enhancers interact with some
Define Gaba (3 things)
The main inhibitory transmitter in the CNS
- Dampens neural activity
- Involved in learning, memory and sleep
Define Acetylcholine (ACh) (2 things)
- What increases/blocks
Involved in muscle contraction (PNS) and cortical arousal (CNS) including aspects of selective attention, sleep and memory.
- Nicotine increases ACh
- Botox blocks ACh
Define Noradrenaline (2 things)
- What increases
Involved in cortical arousal (wakefulness, heart rate) and autonomic nervous system activity
- Meth increases noradrenaline
Define Dopamine (4 things)
- What increases/blocks
Role is motor function and reward (eg food, sex, drugs)
- Increased levels is associated with schizophrenia
- Reduced levels associated with Parkinson's
- Drugs of dependence/rewards increase dopamine
Define Serotonin (3 things)
- What increases
Cortical arousal, mood, sleeping, eating
- SSRI's used to treat depression increase serotonin
- Ecstasy (MDMA) increases serotonin
Define Endorphins (2 things)
Involved in pain control and mood elevation (euphoria) eg "runners high"
- Endogenous Opioids
Define Anandamide (2 things)
Associated with pain control, eating behaviour, motivation, memory and sleep
- Endogenous cannabinoid
What are Psychoactive Drugs?
Any drug that interacts with a NT system and affects mood, arousal and behaviour
What are the 2 types of Psychoactive Drugs?
Agonists and Antagonists
What do Agonists do?
Enhance the effect of a neurotransmitter either by increasing the amount and release of by mimicking it and binding to receptors
- Morphine: Binds to endorphin receptors to reduce pain
- Prozac (SSRI's): Reduces serotonin reuptake, increasing its availability
What do Antagonists do?
Inhibit the effect of a given neurotransmitter, either by reducing the amount and release or blocking receptors
- Botox: Blocks release of acetycholine, thereby stopping its effect on muscles/reduces tremors
- Antipsychotics: Block dopamine receptors, reducing action of dopamine
What is the Endocrine System?
System of glands that control vital functions by producing hormones (eg growth, metabolism, reproduction)
What are Hormones?
Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands
What do hormones do?
Travel through the blood stream and bind to cell receptor sites in organs of the body (allow a global response)
What is the 3 step process in the ANS 'fight or flight'
1. Activation of the sympathetic system (muscle stimulation, heart rate
3. Activation of the parasympathetic branch
What is the role of the Hypothalamus?
Regulate both ANS and endocrine system (by activating the pituitary gland)
What is the Pituitary Gland? Role?
The master gland
It releases hormones which have a direct effects or which activate glands further down the chain
What is Oxytocin and what is its role?
The love molecule
Involved in birth contractions, milk production, maternal/romantic love, interpersonal trust
What does the HPA Axis do?
Works in conjunction with the sympathetic system to respond to stress
Role of the Adrenal Glands (2)
Release adrenaline and cortisol, triggering fight or flight response
- Designed for immediate action (when chronically activated, can lead to long term health problems
Role of the Thyroid Gland
Releases growth and metabolism hormones. Hypothyroidism can be associated with fatigue and depression
Role of the Pancreas
Controls blood sugar levels (produces insulin)