Flashcards in Week 8 - Emotion Deck (47):
What is emotion?
Emotion is an evaluative response and includes
- physiological arousal
- subjective experience
- behavioural/emotional expression
What is affect?
Pattern of behaviours that express emotion
What is mood?
More general emotional state that may or may not be externally expressed
What is expression?
Overt signs of emotion
Emotions can be classified according to their what?
A positive affect is associated with why types of behaviours and what brain region?
Pleasure-seeking, approach-oriented behaviour
Left frontal lobe
A negative affect is related to what kinds of behaviour and what brain region?
Right frontal lobe
What is the Discrete Emotions Theory?
Humans experience a small number of discrete emotions
According to the Discrete Emotions Theory these discrete emotions do what? (4)
Serve distinct evolutionary purposes
Have distinct physiological responses
Are universal across cultures
Occur before thought
In regards to the evolutionary perspective emotions serve adaptive purpose which increases what?
Chances of survival
How do these emotions help survival? (2)
Internal motivator (eg fear- flight or fight)
Discrete emotion theorists propose there are how many primary emotions?
Combining two or more primary emotions result in what?
Cultures have different rules about how and when to express emotions, what is this called?
The insula is triggered by what emotion?
What does the James-Lange Theory of emotions propose?
The sequence of events in experiencing emotion is: Emotion inducing stimulus → Behavioural and Bodily Responses → Affective Experience.
The theory itself emphasises how physiological arousal, with the exclusion of emotional behaviour, is the determiner of emotional feelings.
What is the Somatic Marker Theory?
Gut reactions and physiological response unconsciously directs our decision making and emotional reaction
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory?
Emotional and behavioural responses are elicited simultaneously and independently
- Somatic and autonomic responses can influence emotional experience in some cases
What is the Appraisal Theory?
Emotion arises from appraisal of a stimulus (cognitive element)
Essentially, our appraisal of a situation causes an emotional, or affective, response that is going to be based on that appraisal.
Emotions will vary depending on the significance of a stimulus
What is the Two-Factor Theory of emotion?
The two-factor theory of emotion, states that emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive processes.
According to Schachter, both of these elements must be present for you to experience an emotion.
Cognitive interpretation is based on internal/external event
eg people rate opposite sex as more attractive if they have just been on a roller coaster
What is emotion regulation?
A person’s ability to effectively manage and respond
to an emotional experience.
Reframing the meaning of an event before emotional response occurs does what?
Reduces negative affect
Suppressing emotions after the emotional response leads to?
Increased autonomic arousal
Is emotion regulation learnt?
Yes, we can change the way we react
Our mood can influence what?
Memory capacity, problem solving ability, decision making, judgements
Bias our attention
Influence our expectations of the future
What is the Mere Exposure Effect?
Liking more familiar stimuli
What is the Facial Feedback Hypothesis?
You are more likely to feel emotions that correspond to your facial features
- participants feel the emotion they display
What is the importance of the Limbic System in regards to emotion?
It produces and regulates emotional responses and helps us to interpret the emotions of others
What does the Hippocampus do?
Helps encode new long-term memories including emotional information (through interaction with the amygdala)
What is the Cingulate Cortex involved?
Emotional expression and interpreting/engaging in social behaviour
What is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome? Symptoms?
A bilateral remove/damage to the amygdala
Major symptoms include lack of fear, urge to put objects in mouth, memory loss, hyper sexuality
What is the role of the Pre-frontal Cortex? (in regards to emotion)
Cognitive appraisal of emotional information
Conscious decisions based on emotional information
Regulation of emotional responses/expressions
What is the role of the Insula Cortex? (in regards to emotion)
It is involved in recognition and experience of disgust
The Low Road refers to?
- Fast subcortical pathway via the thalamus (rapid threat detection)
The High Road refers to?
- Slower cortical pathway (more complex analysis)
What are some non-verbal expressions of emotion?
What is a non-verbal leakage?
A powerful cue that we are trying to hide an emotion
What are micro-expressions?
Brief (1/15-1/25 sec) expression which occur when trying to conceal and emotion (involuntary)
What is Proxemics?
The study of personal space
- personal space correlates with emotional emotional distance
What are the 4 levels of distance in proxemics? what are the appropriate distances?
Public: 12 feet or more
What is the Broaden and Build Theory of happiness?
Happiness predisposes us to think more openly, allowing us to see the big picture
- optimists tend to be happier than pessimists
People tend to be happier when? (5)
In individualistic rather than collectivist cultures
With a reasonable income
With many close friends
What is affective forecasting?
Making decisions about a life event and estimating how happy that choice will make us
What is the durability bias?
Overestimating the long-term impact of events on our moods
Our moods tend to adapt to what?
What is self-esteem?
A person's value of their worth