Flashcards in Week 7 - Language Deck (64):
What is language? (3)
Primary mode of communication in every human culture
Range of informational, social and emotional functions
System of symbols, sounds, signs, meanings and the rules for combining them
How is spoken language acquired? And what does it require?
Spoken language is acquired without specific instruction and becomes automatic
Requires co-ordination of physical, cognitive and social skills to produce language effectively
Language symbols are what?
Arbitrary and have limited sound symbolism
flap, flee, fling
What are the 5 elements of language?
What is a Phoneme?
The smallest unit of sound in a language
eg th, a, t, s
What are Morphemes?
The smallest unit of meaning in a language
Many are whole words
Many others are parts of words
- un-, inter-, -ing
What is a Syntax?
Grammatical rules for ordering words and modifying words
Basically sentence forming (arrangement of words and phrases)
What does the knowledge of syntax allow us to do?
Alter surface structure but maintain deep structure
eg the fish was bitten by the girl
OR the girl bit the fish
What are Semantics?
Literal meaning of morphemes, words, sentences
The meaning is very specific
What helps us disambiguate meaning/sentences/words?
Semantic context and syntax
eg look at that girls calf
What are the 2 forms of Extralinguistic Information?
What are Pragmatics?
The way language is used and understood in everyday life
- The literal meaning is not always the intended one
eg.. my door is always open
eg its a bit cool in here
What is nonverbal communication? Why is it important?
Body language and gestures, facial expression, vocalisation
It can speak louder than words
When can infants start hearing language?
About 5 months in the womb
During babbling infants learn to produce what?
phonemes and intonation
After 6 months of age individuals understand =
ones own name
After 9-12 months individuals understand =
After 12 months individuals =
start saying first word
After 12-18 months individuals =
saying 20-100 words
What occurs between 18-24 months of age?
A vocabulary explosion
24 months of age =
several hundred words
48 months of age =
several thousand words
What are the 2 early linguistic errors?
Phonemes: Children pronounce words imperfectly due to production constraints
Semantics: Hard to learn exactly what words mean
During later development what 2 things occur?
Syntax: Holophrases, No. of words increases, Word order and morphological markers
Extralinguistic Communication: Development is more gradual, 24mths + can use speaker's looking/pointing to help understand and emotional tone
Bilinguals show what in regards to language acquisition?
Slight delay in acquiring syntax, but not vocab
Superior metalinguistic awareness
Difference between Bilingualism in early development vs later in development (regards to brain)
Early = Uses same brain areas
Later = Uses different brain areas
Sign language uses which areas of the brain?
Language and visual/spatial areas
Sign language is what key thing?
Generative with syntactic structure
What is the critical period for acquiring language?
Very first early years (up to age 7)
Proficiency in a second language is much higher when learnt when?
Before the age of 7
What are the 4 theories of language acquisition?
Social pragmatic/social interactionist
General Cognitive Processing
Imitation/learning theory believes that language is learned through what? (Bandura)
imitation and classical/operant conditioning
Parents model words/phrases which shape and reinforce children's responses
Criticism of Imitation/learning theories
Parents tend to reinforce correct meaning, not correct grammar
Nativist/Innatist theories believe in a what? (Chomsky)
Humans are pre-programmed with the innate/natural ability to develop language (Language acquisition device)
Explains rapid acquisition, similarity across children/language
Criticism of Nativist/Innate theories?
Grammar is learned slowly and doesn't actually explain how it occurs
Social pragmatic/social interactionist theories believe language is learnt from? (Vygotsky)
Role of social interaction between the developing child and linguistically knowledgeable adults.
The environment but emphasises the social context of language (actions, expressions)
- infant-directed speech
- joint attention
- social interaction
Criticism of Social pragmatic/social interactionist theories?
Social cues may be more difficult to use than theory assumes, or other non social cues may be used
What does the General Cognitive Processing believe about how language is acquired?
Learning language is just like learning anything else
Ability to perceive, learn, recognise patterns is enough to lean language
Criticism of General Cognitive Processing theories (2)
Children are better than adults at learning language but not anything else
Distinct cognitive processes and brain activation occur during language processing
Written languages can be what 3 things?
Reading in English takes years to achieve but it becomes what in literate adults?
Automatic ie we can't not read things
eg stroop task
What 4 things must one understand about writing and written language before learning to read?
Written words hold meaning
Writing has direction
Written symbols are a set of graphemes
Each grapheme has its own phoneme
What is a grapheme?
The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
What are the 2 routes of the Dual-Route Model of Reading?
Whole Word (lexical) Route
Phonetic (sublexical) Route
What is the Whole Word Route?
Whole word recognition
Familiar and irregular (eg yacht)
What is the Phonetic (sublexical) Route?
Phonetic decomposition: Graphemes translated to phonemes (eg c-a-t)
Unfamiliar and non-words (eg dilt)
Teaching whole word reading is usually what outcome?
Inefficient and unhelpful
What is the most efficient and helpful way of teaching reading?
What are the 5 language processes in regards to the biological bases of language?
Auditory Speech Recognition
Visual Word Recognition
Word Representations (Mental Lexicon) is what?
Mental store of information about words
What 3 things are apart of the mental lexicon?
Word forms: Visual (orthographic) and sound (phonological)
Syntactic: How words form to make a sentence
Semantic: Word meaning
What is Auditory Word Recognition?
A complex auditory discrimination process
What is involved in Phoneme production?
Voicing, manner of articulation, point of articulation, tongue placement
What is Speech Segmentation?
Process of identifying the boundaries between words, syllables, or phonemes in spoken natural languages.
The illusion of word boudaries
Which knowledge helps us to interpret incoming information?
What brain region is important for visual word forming and processing?
Left occipito-temporal temporal
What two forms of language share processes?
Spoken and written
What is the area of the brain that is associated with speech comprehension?
Poor comprehension means?
speech sounds normal but has no meaning (word salad)
What is the area of the brain that is associated with speech production?
What is receptive aphasia and damage to what area of the brain leads to this?
Individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language.
Damage to Wernicke's area causes this