Flashcards in Week 3 - Biological Psychology 2 Deck (61):
The Spinal Cord is comprised of what 3 Neurons?
What do Sensory Neurons do?
Are they input or output?
Where are they located?
Send messages to the brain from the body (eg temperature, pressure, pain)
They are input
Located in the dorsal spine
What do Motor Neurons do?
Are they input or output?
Where are they located?
Send messages from the brain to the body (eg actions, changes in organ function)
They are output
Located in the ventral spine
What do Interneurons do?
Connect sensory and motor neurons at the spinal level allowing for reflexive movement
The Forebrain consists of?
Cerebral cortex and subcortical structures
The Brainstem consists of?
Midbrain, pons and medulla
What is the cerebellum known as?
The little brain
What are Cerebral Ventricles?
Cavities within the brain and spinal cord that contain fluid that nourishes and protects CNS from trauma.
What is the role of the Brain Stem?
Regulates bodily function
Connects brain and spinal cord
What does the Pons do?
Connects cortex to cerebellum
The Medulla controls (3)
respiration, heart rate and sleep/wake patterns
The Midbrain is involved in (2)
Movement control, orienting to sensory stimuli
The Reticular Activating System (RAS) controls (2)
consciousness and arousal
What is the largest and most complex region of the brain?
The left and right hemispheres are connected by what? What does this allow?
The corpus callosum
It allows the two hemispheres to share information
What are the 2 subcortical structures of the Forebrain?
The Limbic System and the Basal Ganglia
What is the Limbic System and what is its role? (5)
Interconnected brain regions involved in emotional processing, basic drives, control of the ANS, learning, memory and smell
The Limbic System is comprised of what (4) things?
What does the Thalamus do?
Receives/transfers incoming sensory information to the cortex (relay station)
What does the Hypothalamus do? (3)
Regulates autonomic nervous system and endocrine system (via pituitary gland)
- Basic drives (eg fighting, fleeing)
- Homeostasis (body temp, metabolism)
What is the Amygdala involved in?
Learning, recognising and responding to emotion (particularly fear)
What does the Hippocampus do?
Encode new long-term memories, spatial memory
What is the role of the Basal Ganglia? (3)
Controlling of movement (initiating and inhibiting)
Initiating actions for reward
Some memory processes
What is the cerebral cortex involved in?
Higher order processing (eg thought, speech, reasoning)
What are Primary Areas of the CC associated with?
Receiving incoming sensory information (raw data) or send messages to the body to initiate movement
What do the Associate Areas do?
Add cognitive element by forming perceptions, by applying meaning to incoming messages. Plans responses
What are the 4 lobes of the Cerebral Cortex hemisphere?
3 areas of the Frontal Lobe
What does the Prefrontal cortex control? (3)
- Personality, Mood
What is the role of the executive function in regards to behaviour? (3)
Planning, guidance and evaluation of behaviour (ie decision making, self control)
What is Broca's area involved in? Which hemisphere?
Speech PRODUCTION (typically left hemisphere)
What is the Motor Cortex involved in? (2)
Programming and execution of movement
What does Frontal Lobe Damage result in?
Executive function deficits eg inability to plan, loss in motivation, social inappropriateness
PHINEAS GAGE CASE
What does the Parietal Lobe do?
Vital role in touch sensory information processing.
A region where the brain interprets input from other areas of the body.
Visuospatial navigation and reasoning
What does the somatosensory cortex do?
Registers touch sensations from body (temp, pressure, pain)
The Parietal lobe is known as the ... visual pathway?
Parietal lobe damage results in? (3)
Left and right confusion, problems integrating sensory information, visuo-spatial problems
The Temporal Lobe processes what?
And has long-term storage of what? (2)
Autobiographical information (memory) and storage of objects
What are the 2 cortex's of the Temporal lobe?
Primary Auditory Cortex
Auditory Association Cortex
What does the Primary Auditory Cortex do?
Receives incoming sound, analyses according to frequency/tone
What does the Auditory Association Cortex do?
Applies meaning to sound
What is Wernicke's area associated with?
Language COMPREHENSION (typically L hem only)
The Temporal Lobe is known as the .... visual pathway?
What visual pathway
Temporal lobe damage results in (4)
Auditory problems, impaired language comprehension, poor memory, agnosia and prospagnosia
What are the 2 Cortex's of the Occipital lobe?
What does the Primary Visual Cortex receive?
Visual information from eyes via the optic nerve
What does the Visual Association Cortex organise?
The features from the primary visual cortex into more complex maps of features (eg colour, motion) and their position in space - to form an image
Occipital lobe damage would result in (3)
Cortical blindess, problems with vision, reading problems
What is the Corpus Callosum?
Band of neurons that connects and transfers information between the left and right hemisphere
All sensory input (except olfaction) is largely processed by what hemisphere?
The left hemisphere receives information from the right and controls what side of the body?
The left hemisphere is specialised for what?
What is a Corpus Callosotomy?
Surgical severance of the corpus callosum (split brain surgery)
In split brain patients what connections and control are normal?
Sensory connections and motor control are normal
What process cannot be done in split brain patients?
Sharing of info between the hemispheres
Hemispheric lateralisation can be examined by using what technique?
Information in the right visual field can be described how?
Information in the left visual field can't be described ... but can be acted upon .....
Verbally, non-verbally eg point to object
3 key things the left hemisphere controls