Week 3 - Biological Psychology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 - Biological Psychology 2 Deck (61):
1

The Spinal Cord is comprised of what 3 Neurons?

Sensory
Motor
Interneurons

2

What do Sensory Neurons do?
Are they input or output?
Where are they located?

Send messages to the brain from the body (eg temperature, pressure, pain)

They are input

Located in the dorsal spine

3

What do Motor Neurons do?
Are they input or output?
Where are they located?

Send messages from the brain to the body (eg actions, changes in organ function)

They are output

Located in the ventral spine

4

What do Interneurons do?

Connect sensory and motor neurons at the spinal level allowing for reflexive movement

5

The Forebrain consists of?

Cerebral cortex and subcortical structures

6

The Brainstem consists of?

Midbrain, pons and medulla

7

What is the cerebellum known as?

The little brain

8

What are Cerebral Ventricles?

Cavities within the brain and spinal cord that contain fluid that nourishes and protects CNS from trauma.

9

What is the role of the Brain Stem?

Regulates bodily function
Connects brain and spinal cord

10

What does the Pons do?

Connects cortex to cerebellum

11

The Medulla controls (3)

respiration, heart rate and sleep/wake patterns

12

The Midbrain is involved in (2)

Movement control, orienting to sensory stimuli

13

The Reticular Activating System (RAS) controls (2)

consciousness and arousal

14

What is the largest and most complex region of the brain?

The Forebrain

15

The left and right hemispheres are connected by what? What does this allow?

The corpus callosum
It allows the two hemispheres to share information

16

What are the 2 subcortical structures of the Forebrain?

The Limbic System and the Basal Ganglia

17

What is the Limbic System and what is its role? (5)

Interconnected brain regions involved in emotional processing, basic drives, control of the ANS, learning, memory and smell

18

The Limbic System is comprised of what (4) things?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Hippocampus

19

What does the Thalamus do?

Receives/transfers incoming sensory information to the cortex (relay station)

20

What does the Hypothalamus do? (3)

Regulates autonomic nervous system and endocrine system (via pituitary gland)
- Basic drives (eg fighting, fleeing)
- Homeostasis (body temp, metabolism)

21

What is the Amygdala involved in?

Learning, recognising and responding to emotion (particularly fear)

22

What does the Hippocampus do?

Encode new long-term memories, spatial memory

23

What is the role of the Basal Ganglia? (3)

Controlling of movement (initiating and inhibiting)
Initiating actions for reward
Some memory processes

24

What is the cerebral cortex involved in?

Higher order processing (eg thought, speech, reasoning)

25

Hills =
Valleys =

Gyri
Sulci

26

What are Primary Areas of the CC associated with?

Receiving incoming sensory information (raw data) or send messages to the body to initiate movement

27

What do the Associate Areas do?

Add cognitive element by forming perceptions, by applying meaning to incoming messages. Plans responses

28

What are the 4 lobes of the Cerebral Cortex hemisphere?

Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital

29

3 areas of the Frontal Lobe

Prefrontal cortex
Brocas area
Motor cortex

30

What does the Prefrontal cortex control? (3)

Executive function
- Personality, Mood

31

What is the role of the executive function in regards to behaviour? (3)

Planning, guidance and evaluation of behaviour (ie decision making, self control)

32

What is Broca's area involved in? Which hemisphere?

Speech PRODUCTION (typically left hemisphere)

33

What is the Motor Cortex involved in? (2)

Programming and execution of movement

34

What does Frontal Lobe Damage result in?

Executive function deficits eg inability to plan, loss in motivation, social inappropriateness
PHINEAS GAGE CASE

35

What does the Parietal Lobe do?

Vital role in touch sensory information processing.

A region where the brain interprets input from other areas of the body.

Visuospatial navigation and reasoning

36

What does the somatosensory cortex do?

Registers touch sensations from body (temp, pressure, pain)

37

The Parietal lobe is known as the ... visual pathway?

Where

38

Parietal lobe damage results in? (3)

Left and right confusion, problems integrating sensory information, visuo-spatial problems

39

The Temporal Lobe processes what?
And has long-term storage of what? (2)

Auditory information
Autobiographical information (memory) and storage of objects

40

What are the 2 cortex's of the Temporal lobe?

Primary Auditory Cortex
Auditory Association Cortex

41

What does the Primary Auditory Cortex do?

Receives incoming sound, analyses according to frequency/tone

42

What does the Auditory Association Cortex do?

Applies meaning to sound

43

What is Wernicke's area associated with?

Language COMPREHENSION (typically L hem only)

44

The Temporal Lobe is known as the .... visual pathway?

What visual pathway

45

Temporal lobe damage results in (4)

Auditory problems, impaired language comprehension, poor memory, agnosia and prospagnosia

46

What are the 2 Cortex's of the Occipital lobe?

Primary visual
Visual Association

47

What does the Primary Visual Cortex receive?

Visual information from eyes via the optic nerve

48

What does the Visual Association Cortex organise?

The features from the primary visual cortex into more complex maps of features (eg colour, motion) and their position in space - to form an image

49

Occipital lobe damage would result in (3)

Cortical blindess, problems with vision, reading problems

50

What is the Corpus Callosum?

Band of neurons that connects and transfers information between the left and right hemisphere

51

All sensory input (except olfaction) is largely processed by what hemisphere?

The opposite

52

The left hemisphere receives information from the right and controls what side of the body?

The right

53

The left hemisphere is specialised for what?

Language

54

What is a Corpus Callosotomy?

Surgical severance of the corpus callosum (split brain surgery)

55

In split brain patients what connections and control are normal?

Sensory connections and motor control are normal

56

What process cannot be done in split brain patients?

Sharing of info between the hemispheres

57

Hemispheric lateralisation can be examined by using what technique?

Split-field

58

Information in the right visual field can be described how?

Verbally

59

Information in the left visual field can't be described ... but can be acted upon .....

Verbally, non-verbally eg point to object

60

3 key things the left hemisphere controls

Speech comprehension/production
Phonology
Reading/writing

61

3 key things the right hemisphere controls

simple speech/writing
tone of voice
face perception