Week 12 - Consciousness Flashcards Preview

PSY112 - Brain & Behaviour > Week 12 - Consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 12 - Consciousness Deck (96):
1

What is Consciousness?

Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies and our mental perspectives

2

What are the two main functions of consciousness?

To monitor and to control

3

What does it mean to Monitor?

Monitoring yourself and the environment
- perception, thoughts, emotions, goals etc

4

What does it mean to Control?

To regulate thought and behaviour
- initiate or terminate behaviour to attain a goal

5

To be conscious, there needs to be a certain level of what?

Arousal

6

The Reticular Activating System (RAS) includes what?

midline nuclei in the upper brain stem (pons, medulla, midbrain and posterior hypothalamus)

7

What does the RAS do? (3)

Controls arousal
Projects to the thalamus and frontal regions
Alternate sleep and waking and control general level of brain and behaviour arousal

8

How long of our lives do we spend asleep?

1/3

9

What is the sleep/wake cycle governed by?

Circadian rhythms

10

What are Circadian Rhythms?

Biological clocks that evolved around the daily cycles of light and day.

Other circadian rhythms include temp and hormones

11

Electrical activity of the brain is detected by what?

Electrodes on the scalp
Provides information on general state of arousal

12

What are the 5 wavebands EEG signals are divided into?

Delta (1-4)
Theta (5-7)
Alpha (8-12)
Beta (13-22)
Gamma (>30)

13

Advantage and disadvantage of EEG?

Has good temporal resolution (detect rapid changes in time) but poor spatial resolution (unclear where activity is occurring)

14

Normal waking is associated with what?

Irregular pattern of EEG characterised by:
Beta waves (13-22): higher mental activity
Alpha waves(8-12): calm wakefulness

15

Explain Stage 1 of sleep

A brief (5-10 minutes) with slower theta waves (4-7 cycles per second)

16

What 2 things occur during Stage 1? what do they mean?

Hypnagogic Imagery: Confused dream like images
Hypnic Myoclonia: Sense of falling/uncontrolled muscle contractions

17

Describe Stage 2 of sleep (3)

10-30 mins
EEG pattern is slightly slower
Muscles relax, heart rate slows, body temp decreases, eye movements cease

18

What are the 2 things that occur during Stage 2 of sleep, what do they mean?

Sleep Spindles: Bursts of low-amplitude activity
K Complexes: Occasional slow, high amplitude waves

19

What is Stage 3 sleep marked by?

20-50% slow delta waves (1-2Hz)

20

Stage 4 is marked by?

>50% delta waves

21

Stage 3 & 4 of sleep occur for how long?

15-30 mins

22

How long does REM sleep last?

10-20 mins

23

What does REM sleep resemble?

The faster, waking brain pattern

24

What occurs in REM sleep? (3)

Eyes move rapidly back and forth
Autonomic activity increases
Muscles are turned off

25

How long is a complete cycle of REM/non-REM sleep?

90 mins

26

How many times does the sleep/wake cycle occur in a night?

4-5 times

27

As the night progresses we spend less time in ... and more time in ...

Delta and more time in REM

28

What % of our sleep is in REM?

25%

29

What type of sleep is dreaming more common in?

REM

30

NREM dreams are? (4)

Shorter
More thought like
Repetitive
Concerned with daily tasks

31

REM dreams are (3)

Emotional
Illogical
Prone to plot shifts

32

Dream content is often what (2) things?

Stimulation of everyday life
Negative themes

33

What is Lucid Dreaming?
What does it have features of?

Awareness of dreaming
Often when something bizarre or unlikely happens
Features of waking and REM sleep

34

What are the 4 theories associated with dreaming?

Psychodynamic
Activation/Synthesis
Forebrain Hypothesis
Neurocognitive Perspective

35

Explain Freud's Psychodynamic Theory of Dreaming

Dreams are repressed wishes or unconscious desires of the ego
Interpretation of dreams is based on working out the latent from the manifest content

36

Explain the Activation/Synthesis Theory of Dreaming

Dreams are the result of the forebrains attempt to make sense of the neural activity occurring in other parts of the brain during sleep.

37

What activates the Pons according to the AS theory?

Acetycholine

38

What brain area adds emotional content?

Amygdala

39

Explain why the Forebrain Hypothesis is important

Damage to the forebrain can stop dreaming which suggests an interaction between forebrain areas is important

40

Explain the Neurocognitive Perspective of dreaming

The complexity of dreaming mirrors cognitive development

Dreams occur to process and solve problems, integrate previously learned and new information and help with memory consolidation

41

What is insomnia?

Inability to sleep/fall asleep/waking up early

42

Insomnia is higher among people with

Depression, pain, medical conditions, older age

43

What are the short-term causes of Insomnia?

Stress, medications, illness, shift work, jet lag

44

What is the most effective treatment of Insomnia?

Sleep hygiene
eg sleeping in a cool room
regular sleep/waking times

45

What is Narcolepsy?

Sleep attacks during the day despite good sleep at night

46

What is cataplexy?

Loss of muscle tone during strong emotions

47

People with Narcolepsy also tend to experience (3)

Cataplexy, hallucinations, temporary paralysis on waking

48

Narcolepsy is associated with a reduction in what?

The hormone orexin

49

What is Sleep Apnoea?

Interrupted breathing during sleep (2-20% of population experience)

50

What is Sleep Apnoea often due to? (2)

Fat build up
Loss of muscle tone which allows windpipe to collapse

51

What can Sleep Apnoea lead to? (4)

Fatigue
Tiredness
Health Problems
Increased risk of death

52

When do Night Terrors occur in the sleep cycle?

Stages 3 and 4

53

When do nightmares occur?

REM sleep

54

Who mostly experiences night terrors? What occurs?

Children and they often appear awake and highly distressed with no recollection later

55

What can trigger sleepwalking?

Stress

56

Sleepwalking usually involves what type of behaviour?

Mundane/Normal

57

When does sleepwalking typically occur

Stages 3 and 4

58

What are some (3) effects of sleep deprivation?

Depression
Hallucinations
Weight gain

59

Sleep deprivation can magnify the effect of what substance?

Alcohol

60

What are Hallucinations?

Sensation experiences despite lack of environmental stimuli

61

What areas become activated during hallucinations (1)

Sensory areas

62

What are Out-of-Body experiences?

Sensations of the self leaving the body and sometimes travelling to other places (astral planing) or observing the body engaging in activity

63

OOBE can be induced by activation of what?

Of the temporal-parietal junction

64

What are Near Death Experiences?

Sensation of passing to another realm or having your life flash before your eyes

65

What are the scientific explanations for NDE traits?
Sense of Peace
Life flashing before eyes
Tunnel/light/sounds

Sense of peace - flood of endorphins
Life flashing before eyes - search memories for escape
Tunnel/light/sounds - reduced oxygen supply to brain

66

NDE can be triggered by what?

Electrical stimulation of temporal lobe
Lack of oxygen
physchedelic and anaesthetic drugs

67

What is meditation?

Direct attempts to control attention and awareness

68

What is Concentrative Meditation?

Focus on object, breathing, mantra

69

What is Mindfulness Meditation?

Detached focus on thoughts, sensation, awareness
- increasingly used in mainstream therapy

70

There is evidence that regulation meditation does what (3)

increases happiness
reduces hypertension
reduces stress/anxiety

71

The Socio-Cognitive Theory (non-state theory) of hypnosis proposes that

Attitudes, beliefs and expectations about hypnosis and susceptibility to respond to waking imaginative suggestions shapes responses to hypnosis

we are more likely to resist if told that it is possible - suggestibility increased if effects of hypnotism are promoted

72

The Dissociation Theory (state theory) of hypnosis proposes that

Occurs when a person is actually hypnotised and is therefore in a different, or altered, state of mind.

Dissociation theory states that hypnosis causes a person to actively or voluntarily split their consciousness.

Part of the mind is in an altered state but a hidden observer could appear due to susceptibility to suggestion/instruction

73

The Dissociated Control Theory of hypnosis states that

Hypnosis bypasses frontal control processes that govern behaviour

74

Hypnosis in a clinical practice is effective (with other things) in what areas?

Pain reduction
Habit disorders

75

What do Psychoactive Drugs do?

Induce changes in thinking, perception and behaviour by affecting neural activity in the brain

76

Drug action is affected by what 3 factors and how

Biochemical: Neurotransmitter released increases/decreases or is dysregulated

Physiological: CNS is depressed or stimulated

Social/Cultural: The expectations and beliefs regarding the effects of drugs

77

What is the Physical Dependence Theory?

Drug is taken to avoid negative withdrawal symptoms

78

What is the Psychological Dependence Theory?

Drug taken to obtain the positive feelings (positive-incentive)

79

Stimulants do what?

Increase activity of the CNS

80

What are the 4 types of stimulants?

Cocaine
Meth
Ecstasy
Nicotine

81

Taking Cocaine results in (3)

What does taking Cocaine do inside the body?

Euphoria, suppression of hunger and pain, increased mental activity

Increases dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine

82

Taking Meth results in (3)

May include?

What does taking meth do inside the body?

Euphoria, decreased of hunger and pain, increased mental activity

May include paranoia, depression, anxiety, hallucinations

Increases dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine

83

Taking Ecstasy results in (3)

What follows in the coming days?

What does taking ecstasy do inside the body?

Sense of wellbeing, feeling close to others, increased tactile sensation

Depression usually follows

Increases serotonin (also dopamine, norepinephrine)

84

Taking Nicotine results in (2)

What does nicotine do inside the body?

Sense of wellbeing and alertness

Activates receptors associated with neurotransmitter acetycholine

85

Depressants do what?

Decrease activity of the CNS

86

2 types of depressants?

Alcohol
Sedatives

87

Alcohol in small amounts does what?

Increases well being and social interaction, but also reduces physiological functioning (eg co-ordination, alertness)

88

Alcohol has a large effect on what neurotransmitter

GABA

89

What do Opiates do?

Depress the CNS

90

Opiates give a sense of what (3) things?

and increases/mimics what?

Euphoria, decreased pain and sleep

endorphins

91

What do hallucinogens/psychedelics do?

Cause dramatic changes in perception, mood and thought

92

What are some types of hallucinogens/psychedelics

Cannabis
LSD
Magic Mushrooms

93

What are the acute effects of Cannabis? (3)

Sense of wellbeing, relaxation, changes perception

94

What does Cannabis do inside the body?

THC acts on cannabinoid receptors, mimicking the effects of endocannabinoids such as anandamide

also increases dopamine

95

What does LSD cause? (3)

Synaethesia, hallucinations and sometimes panic, paranoid delusions

96

What does LSD act on inside the body?

Serotonin and dopamine