Flashcards in Week 12 - Consciousness Deck (96):
What is Consciousness?
Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies and our mental perspectives
What are the two main functions of consciousness?
To monitor and to control
What does it mean to Monitor?
Monitoring yourself and the environment
- perception, thoughts, emotions, goals etc
What does it mean to Control?
To regulate thought and behaviour
- initiate or terminate behaviour to attain a goal
To be conscious, there needs to be a certain level of what?
The Reticular Activating System (RAS) includes what?
midline nuclei in the upper brain stem (pons, medulla, midbrain and posterior hypothalamus)
What does the RAS do? (3)
Projects to the thalamus and frontal regions
Alternate sleep and waking and control general level of brain and behaviour arousal
How long of our lives do we spend asleep?
What is the sleep/wake cycle governed by?
What are Circadian Rhythms?
Biological clocks that evolved around the daily cycles of light and day.
Other circadian rhythms include temp and hormones
Electrical activity of the brain is detected by what?
Electrodes on the scalp
Provides information on general state of arousal
What are the 5 wavebands EEG signals are divided into?
Advantage and disadvantage of EEG?
Has good temporal resolution (detect rapid changes in time) but poor spatial resolution (unclear where activity is occurring)
Normal waking is associated with what?
Irregular pattern of EEG characterised by:
Beta waves (13-22): higher mental activity
Alpha waves(8-12): calm wakefulness
Explain Stage 1 of sleep
A brief (5-10 minutes) with slower theta waves (4-7 cycles per second)
What 2 things occur during Stage 1? what do they mean?
Hypnagogic Imagery: Confused dream like images
Hypnic Myoclonia: Sense of falling/uncontrolled muscle contractions
Describe Stage 2 of sleep (3)
EEG pattern is slightly slower
Muscles relax, heart rate slows, body temp decreases, eye movements cease
What are the 2 things that occur during Stage 2 of sleep, what do they mean?
Sleep Spindles: Bursts of low-amplitude activity
K Complexes: Occasional slow, high amplitude waves
What is Stage 3 sleep marked by?
20-50% slow delta waves (1-2Hz)
Stage 4 is marked by?
>50% delta waves
Stage 3 & 4 of sleep occur for how long?
How long does REM sleep last?
What does REM sleep resemble?
The faster, waking brain pattern
What occurs in REM sleep? (3)
Eyes move rapidly back and forth
Autonomic activity increases
Muscles are turned off
How long is a complete cycle of REM/non-REM sleep?
How many times does the sleep/wake cycle occur in a night?
As the night progresses we spend less time in ... and more time in ...
Delta and more time in REM
What % of our sleep is in REM?
What type of sleep is dreaming more common in?
NREM dreams are? (4)
More thought like
Concerned with daily tasks
REM dreams are (3)
Prone to plot shifts
Dream content is often what (2) things?
Stimulation of everyday life
What is Lucid Dreaming?
What does it have features of?
Awareness of dreaming
Often when something bizarre or unlikely happens
Features of waking and REM sleep
What are the 4 theories associated with dreaming?
Explain Freud's Psychodynamic Theory of Dreaming
Dreams are repressed wishes or unconscious desires of the ego
Interpretation of dreams is based on working out the latent from the manifest content
Explain the Activation/Synthesis Theory of Dreaming
Dreams are the result of the forebrains attempt to make sense of the neural activity occurring in other parts of the brain during sleep.
What activates the Pons according to the AS theory?
What brain area adds emotional content?
Explain why the Forebrain Hypothesis is important
Damage to the forebrain can stop dreaming which suggests an interaction between forebrain areas is important
Explain the Neurocognitive Perspective of dreaming
The complexity of dreaming mirrors cognitive development
Dreams occur to process and solve problems, integrate previously learned and new information and help with memory consolidation
What is insomnia?
Inability to sleep/fall asleep/waking up early
Insomnia is higher among people with
Depression, pain, medical conditions, older age
What are the short-term causes of Insomnia?
Stress, medications, illness, shift work, jet lag
What is the most effective treatment of Insomnia?
eg sleeping in a cool room
regular sleep/waking times
What is Narcolepsy?
Sleep attacks during the day despite good sleep at night
What is cataplexy?
Loss of muscle tone during strong emotions
People with Narcolepsy also tend to experience (3)
Cataplexy, hallucinations, temporary paralysis on waking
Narcolepsy is associated with a reduction in what?
The hormone orexin
What is Sleep Apnoea?
Interrupted breathing during sleep (2-20% of population experience)
What is Sleep Apnoea often due to? (2)
Fat build up
Loss of muscle tone which allows windpipe to collapse
What can Sleep Apnoea lead to? (4)
Increased risk of death
When do Night Terrors occur in the sleep cycle?
Stages 3 and 4
When do nightmares occur?
Who mostly experiences night terrors? What occurs?
Children and they often appear awake and highly distressed with no recollection later
What can trigger sleepwalking?
Sleepwalking usually involves what type of behaviour?
When does sleepwalking typically occur
Stages 3 and 4
What are some (3) effects of sleep deprivation?
Sleep deprivation can magnify the effect of what substance?
What are Hallucinations?
Sensation experiences despite lack of environmental stimuli
What areas become activated during hallucinations (1)
What are Out-of-Body experiences?
Sensations of the self leaving the body and sometimes travelling to other places (astral planing) or observing the body engaging in activity
OOBE can be induced by activation of what?
Of the temporal-parietal junction
What are Near Death Experiences?
Sensation of passing to another realm or having your life flash before your eyes
What are the scientific explanations for NDE traits?
Sense of Peace
Life flashing before eyes
Sense of peace - flood of endorphins
Life flashing before eyes - search memories for escape
Tunnel/light/sounds - reduced oxygen supply to brain
NDE can be triggered by what?
Electrical stimulation of temporal lobe
Lack of oxygen
physchedelic and anaesthetic drugs
What is meditation?
Direct attempts to control attention and awareness
What is Concentrative Meditation?
Focus on object, breathing, mantra
What is Mindfulness Meditation?
Detached focus on thoughts, sensation, awareness
- increasingly used in mainstream therapy
There is evidence that regulation meditation does what (3)
The Socio-Cognitive Theory (non-state theory) of hypnosis proposes that
Attitudes, beliefs and expectations about hypnosis and susceptibility to respond to waking imaginative suggestions shapes responses to hypnosis
we are more likely to resist if told that it is possible - suggestibility increased if effects of hypnotism are promoted
The Dissociation Theory (state theory) of hypnosis proposes that
Occurs when a person is actually hypnotised and is therefore in a different, or altered, state of mind.
Dissociation theory states that hypnosis causes a person to actively or voluntarily split their consciousness.
Part of the mind is in an altered state but a hidden observer could appear due to susceptibility to suggestion/instruction
The Dissociated Control Theory of hypnosis states that
Hypnosis bypasses frontal control processes that govern behaviour
Hypnosis in a clinical practice is effective (with other things) in what areas?
What do Psychoactive Drugs do?
Induce changes in thinking, perception and behaviour by affecting neural activity in the brain
Drug action is affected by what 3 factors and how
Biochemical: Neurotransmitter released increases/decreases or is dysregulated
Physiological: CNS is depressed or stimulated
Social/Cultural: The expectations and beliefs regarding the effects of drugs
What is the Physical Dependence Theory?
Drug is taken to avoid negative withdrawal symptoms
What is the Psychological Dependence Theory?
Drug taken to obtain the positive feelings (positive-incentive)
Stimulants do what?
Increase activity of the CNS
What are the 4 types of stimulants?
Taking Cocaine results in (3)
What does taking Cocaine do inside the body?
Euphoria, suppression of hunger and pain, increased mental activity
Increases dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine
Taking Meth results in (3)
What does taking meth do inside the body?
Euphoria, decreased of hunger and pain, increased mental activity
May include paranoia, depression, anxiety, hallucinations
Increases dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine
Taking Ecstasy results in (3)
What follows in the coming days?
What does taking ecstasy do inside the body?
Sense of wellbeing, feeling close to others, increased tactile sensation
Depression usually follows
Increases serotonin (also dopamine, norepinephrine)
Taking Nicotine results in (2)
What does nicotine do inside the body?
Sense of wellbeing and alertness
Activates receptors associated with neurotransmitter acetycholine
Depressants do what?
Decrease activity of the CNS
2 types of depressants?
Alcohol in small amounts does what?
Increases well being and social interaction, but also reduces physiological functioning (eg co-ordination, alertness)
Alcohol has a large effect on what neurotransmitter
What do Opiates do?
Depress the CNS
Opiates give a sense of what (3) things?
and increases/mimics what?
Euphoria, decreased pain and sleep
What do hallucinogens/psychedelics do?
Cause dramatic changes in perception, mood and thought
What are some types of hallucinogens/psychedelics
What are the acute effects of Cannabis? (3)
Sense of wellbeing, relaxation, changes perception
What does Cannabis do inside the body?
THC acts on cannabinoid receptors, mimicking the effects of endocannabinoids such as anandamide
also increases dopamine
What does LSD cause? (3)
Synaethesia, hallucinations and sometimes panic, paranoid delusions