Flashcards in Week 4 - Biological Psychology 3 Deck (42):
Darwin argued that evolution occurs through what?
What is meant by survival of the fittest?
Nature creates fitter animals by selectively breeding the fittest
What is Fitness in Darwins sense?
The ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation
On average, the human brain is how many times the size compared to mammals of the same body size?
How much has the human brain grown in size?
It has tripled
The shape of the human brain changes significantly during the first few years of life in response to what?
environmental factors (plasticity)
What is Evolutionary Psychology focused on?
How evolution has shaped the mind and behaviour
Evolutionary Psychology attempts to explain mental and physiological traits (memory, language etc) as what?
Adaptations ( the functional products of natural selection)
According to Evolutionary Psychologists, many traits are programmed how?
What is a Dominant trait?
Something appearing in all of the first-generation offspring
What is a recessive trait?
Something that appears in about one quarter of the second-generation offspring
Mendel concluded what (3) things from his experiment?
Inheritance of each trait is determined by units/factors that are passed onto descendents unchanged (genes)
An individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait
A trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation
What does homozygous mean?
Possessing two identical genes for a trait
What does heterozygous mean?
Possessing two different genes for a trait
What is DNA?
The molecule that holds the genetic information for a cell and an organism
Where are genes contained?
In the chromosomes
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
What do Behavioural Geneticists study?
Individuals of known genetic similarity
Monozygotic twins share what % of their genes?
Dizygotic twins share what % of their genes?
Minnesota twin study concluded that 70% of intelligence can be attributed to what?
Environment has a decisive influence on the development of what?
What is the Phenotype?
The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment)
What are genotypes?
The entire set of genes in an organism
What occurs during Stereotaxic surgery?
Allows a wide range of manipulation of the CNS
- Lesion implants
- Implants of electrodes
What is the most used fixation?
What is the underlying principle of experimental lesions?
If after the lesion the animal is unable to perform a given behaviour/impairment then it is assumed that the region investigated participates in that behaviour/function
What are the advantages of reversible lesions?
repeated measures design
the animal is its own control
What occurs to the brain during a reversible lesion?
Temporal inactivation (mins/hours) of specific brain regions by means of microinjections of local anaesthetics
What occurs during chemical stimulation?
Indwelling cannula are implanted and injections of agonists/antagonists are made with fine microinjectors
What is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)? what does it cause?
A non-invasive method to cause depolarisation in neurons
What does TMS use?
electromagnetic induction to induce weak electric currents using a rapidly changing magnetic field
What is rTMS used for?
Used for treating neurological and psychiatric disorders including migraines, strokes, Parkinson's, addiction and depression
What are Optogenetics Genetic Techniques
Mapping brain circuits with light
How is an Electroencephalogram (EEG) obtained?
By placing large electrodes on the scalp, on the skull (cortical) or deep into the brain (subcortical)
What does an EEG do?
Picks up general changes in brain activity
An EEG wave is correlated with what?
A specific state of arousal
Magnetic Reasonance Imaging (MRI) is what?
A procedure that generates high-resolution images of the brain.
What does an MRI measure?
MRI scanners measure the release of energy from water in biological tissues following exposure to magnetic field (radio frequecny)
Waves of hydrogen atoms that are emitted when they become activated by radio frequency
What is Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
A nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a 3-dimensional image of picture of functional processes in the body
What does a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measure?
the hemodynamic response (change in blood flow) related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans