Week 4 - Biological Psychology 3 Flashcards Preview

PSY112 - Brain & Behaviour > Week 4 - Biological Psychology 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4 - Biological Psychology 3 Deck (42):
1

Darwin argued that evolution occurs through what?

Natural selection

2

What is meant by survival of the fittest?

Nature creates fitter animals by selectively breeding the fittest

3

What is Fitness in Darwins sense?

The ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation

4

On average, the human brain is how many times the size compared to mammals of the same body size?

Double

5

How much has the human brain grown in size?

It has tripled

6

The shape of the human brain changes significantly during the first few years of life in response to what?

environmental factors (plasticity)

7

What is Evolutionary Psychology focused on?

How evolution has shaped the mind and behaviour

8

Evolutionary Psychology attempts to explain mental and physiological traits (memory, language etc) as what?

Adaptations ( the functional products of natural selection)

9

According to Evolutionary Psychologists, many traits are programmed how?

Genetically

10

What is a Dominant trait?

Something appearing in all of the first-generation offspring

11

What is a recessive trait?

Something that appears in about one quarter of the second-generation offspring

12

Mendel concluded what (3) things from his experiment?
- Inheritance

Inheritance of each trait is determined by units/factors that are passed onto descendents unchanged (genes)

An individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait

A trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation

13

What does homozygous mean?

Possessing two identical genes for a trait

14

What does heterozygous mean?

Possessing two different genes for a trait

15

What is DNA?

The molecule that holds the genetic information for a cell and an organism

16

Where are genes contained?

In the chromosomes

17

How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

23

18

What do Behavioural Geneticists study?

Individuals of known genetic similarity

19

Monozygotic twins share what % of their genes?

100%

20

Dizygotic twins share what % of their genes?

50%

21

Minnesota twin study concluded that 70% of intelligence can be attributed to what?

Genetic inheritance

22

Environment has a decisive influence on the development of what?

The Phenotype

23

What is the Phenotype?

The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment)

24

What are genotypes?

The entire set of genes in an organism

25

What occurs during Stereotaxic surgery?

Allows a wide range of manipulation of the CNS
- Lesion implants
- Implants of electrodes

26

What is the most used fixation?

Chemical Fixation

27

What is the underlying principle of experimental lesions?

If after the lesion the animal is unable to perform a given behaviour/impairment then it is assumed that the region investigated participates in that behaviour/function

28

What are the advantages of reversible lesions?

repeated measures design
the animal is its own control

29

What occurs to the brain during a reversible lesion?

Temporal inactivation (mins/hours) of specific brain regions by means of microinjections of local anaesthetics

30

What occurs during chemical stimulation?

Indwelling cannula are implanted and injections of agonists/antagonists are made with fine microinjectors

31

What is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)? what does it cause?

A non-invasive method to cause depolarisation in neurons

32

What does TMS use?

electromagnetic induction to induce weak electric currents using a rapidly changing magnetic field

33

What is rTMS used for?

Used for treating neurological and psychiatric disorders including migraines, strokes, Parkinson's, addiction and depression

34

What are Optogenetics Genetic Techniques

Mapping brain circuits with light

35

How is an Electroencephalogram (EEG) obtained?

By placing large electrodes on the scalp, on the skull (cortical) or deep into the brain (subcortical)

36

What does an EEG do?

Picks up general changes in brain activity

37

An EEG wave is correlated with what?

A specific state of arousal

38

Magnetic Reasonance Imaging (MRI) is what?

A procedure that generates high-resolution images of the brain.

39

What does an MRI measure?

MRI scanners measure the release of energy from water in biological tissues following exposure to magnetic field (radio frequecny)

Waves of hydrogen atoms that are emitted when they become activated by radio frequency

40

What is Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)

A nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a 3-dimensional image of picture of functional processes in the body

41

What does a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measure?

the hemodynamic response (change in blood flow) related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans

42

Advantages of fMRI

Relatively low invasiveness, absence of radiation exposure and relatively wide availability