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What is the key to weight maintenance?

-The key to weight maintenance is:
o Energy In = Energy Out
-If energy intake is > energy output = ↑↑ in body mass
-If energy output is > energy intake = ↓↓ in body mass


What are the prevalence statistics worldwide in 2014 for obesity?

-Worldwide obesity has doubled since 1980
-In 2014:
o >1.9 billion adults were overweight
o 39% overweight (38% Men and 40% Women)
o 13% obese (11% Men and 15% of Women)
-> 42 million children under 5 were overweight or obese in 2013


What are the prevalence statistics in Australia from 2007-2008 for obesity?

-Closer to home – Australia
o 62% of adults in Australia were overweight
o 1 in 4 children are overweight or obese


What are the predictions for obesity in Australia in the future?

-By 2020 – 75% of Australians will be overweight or obese
-By 2020 – 50% of young Australians will be overweight or obese


Define overweight and obesity

o “Body weight that exceeds the normal weight for a person based on height and frame size”
o “Having an excessive amount of body fat”
-Obesity – is multifactorial
o Excessive amounts of body fat
o Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue


What is the aetiology of obesity and its theories?

-Complex and multifactorial
o Hormonal imbalances
-Endocrine system doesn’t regulate body weight properly
o Improper diet and lack of exercise
o Genetics
o Emotional trauma
o Cultural habits


How much does genetics account for obesity?

-Genetics – accounts for 25%
o Inherited factors
-RMR – Resting metabolic Rate
-Fat distribution


What are the cultural transmissions of obesity and the percentage?

-Cultural differences and norms
o Food Collection
o Daily activities and rituals


What are the non transmissible factors and its percentage?

-Lifestyle Factors
o Imbalance between energy consumption and energy expenditure
-Socioeconomic Factors
o Lower socioeconomic groups more likely to be overweight/obese


When someone has obese syndrome what are the symptoms?

1. Glucose intolerance
2. Insulin resistance
3. Dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia)
4. Type 2 Diabetes
5. Hypertension
6. Elevated plasma Leptin concentrations
7. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation
8. Increased coronary heart disease risk
9. Increased cancer risk


What are co-morbidities caused by?

o Medical diseases that are either caused by or contributed to by another factor


What is Type 2 Diabetes as a co-morbidity?

-Modifiable disease
-Usually developed later in life > 40 years
-Have the capability to produce insulin however the body has become insulin resistant
o Receptors on cells are resistant to insulin


What is the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes?

-Constant ingestion of high GI foods, which cause surges in blood glucose and insulin secretion thus overtime becoming resistant


What is Hypercholesterolemia as a co-morbidity?

-High cholesterol levels in the blood
-Potentially lead to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease


What is the link between obesity and Hypercholesterolemia?

-Eating foods high in cholesterol and limited exercise


What is Cardiovascular disease as a co-morbidity?

-Incorporates many diseases involving the heart and blood vessels
o e.g. Coronary Artery Disease, Hypertension


What is the link between obesity and Cardiovascular disease?

-Similar causes to hypertension and hypercholesterolemia


What is Hypertension as a co-morbidity?

-High blood pressure
-Systolic > 140 mmHg
-Diastolic > 90 mmHg
-Chronic and persistent hypertension damages the arteries and can lead to heart disease or stroke


What is the link between obesity and Hypertension?

-Increased salt intake, high fat intake, high alcohol consumption limited exercise


What is Osteoporosis as a co-morbidity?

-A progressive disease as the bone losses its calcium and mineral content


What is the link between obesity and Osteoporosis?

-Limited exercise, high sodium intake, high protein intake, excessive alcohol consumption


What is Sleep Apnoea as a co-morbidity?

-A sleep disorder that causes pauses in breathing during sleep.
-Can result in tiredness during the day, impaired alertness, slower reaction times, effects on cognitive and behavioural state


What is the link between obesity and Sleep Apnoea?

-Absence of muscle tone and soft tissue around the airway


What is the link between obesity and Cancers?

-Possible link to obesity:
o Fat tissue produces oestrogen which has been associated with certain cancers
o High levels of insulin may promote certain tumours
o Leptin promotes cell proliferation


What is the link between obesity and Reproductive Abnormalities/Fertility?

-Possible Link to Obesity:
o Affected fertility
o Birthing complications
o Gestational Diabetes


What is the Metabolic Syndrome?

-Syndrome X
-Now listed as a disease
-Defined as having any three of the following;
o High blood sugar
o High triglycerides
o Low HDL “good cholesterol”
o High BP/hypertension
o High waist circumference
o Android obesity
o Increased LDL “bad cholesterol”
o Insulin resistance
o Impaired glucose metabolism


What is Mortality and Morbidity?

-Mortality – rate of deaths related to a particular disease
-Morbidity – presence of a disease
o Even though the risk for premature illness and death is greater for those who are overweight, the risk also increases for individuals who are underweight


How do you change the prevalence of obesity?

-3 ways to lose weight by unbalancing the equation;
1. Reduce caloric intake below daily energy requirements
2. Maintain caloric intake and increase EE
3. Decrease caloric intake and increase DEE


What are some dangerous fad diets?

-The Soup Diet – Eat breakfast then fill up on soup for the rest of the day.
-Grape Juice Diet - Eat what you want, then have 64 ounces (~2 L) of juice per day supposed to combine with protein to rev up fat burning abilities.
-Baby Food Diet - Eat 14 jars of baby food and enjoy a real dinner
-The Cookie Diet - Specially made cookies, eat 6 a day then dinner.
-The Kimkins Diet - Eat 800 calories a day and take laxatives.
-The Tongue Patch Diet - Insert a device that makes eating uncomfortable


What is HDL Cholesterol (healthy)?

-Build & maintain cell membranes
-Necessary to manufacture bile
-Necessary to absorb fat & vitamins A, D, E & K
-Insulates nerve fibres
-Aids in the production of adrenal gland hormones
-Aids in the production of sex hormones