Week Ten Flashcards Preview

Exercise Science for Health > Week Ten > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week Ten Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is aerobic exercise?

-Any activity that you can sustain for more than just a few minutes (‘Cardio Exercise’)
-Often considered the most important component of physical fitness and best indicator of overall health

2

What is cardiorespiratory endurance?

The ability of the lungs, heart and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity.

3

What are Endurance Sports?

-A subset of sports in which the goal is prolonged athletic output over an extended distance or for an extended period of time
-They are aerobic by nature
-In general, the athlete is required to cover a fixed distance in the shortest time possible

4

What is the average aerobic fitness of an adult and athlete?

-Average sedentary adult = 35 ml/kg/min
-Elite athletes can be as high as = 90 ml/kg/min

5

How do athletes get a high aerobic fitness?

-They may have good genes, but they also train hard!
-When they train their bodies adapt

6

Why do we need acute responses to aerobic exercise?

-To supply oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles at a faster rate and volume

7

What is the basic physiology of breathing?

Breathing
-Oxygen is taken up by the alveoli in the lungs.
Blood passes through capillaries of the alveoli
-Oxygen is picked up by haemoglobin and transported to the heart
Heart
-Pumps oxygenated blood through the circulatory system to all organs and tissues in the body
Cells
-Oxygen is used to convert food through aerobic metabolism into adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Physical Exertion
-More ATP is needed to perform the activity
Muscles
-Lungs, heart & blood vessels have to deliver more oxygen to the muscles to supply the required energy

8

During exercise what happens to the demand on oxygen and why?

-Oxygen demand during exercise increases
-Why? Muscles require more oxygen and nutrients (compared to rest) to produce the energy required for sustaining exercise

9

What is oxygen uptake related to?

-Mass of exercising muscle
-Metabolic efficiency
-Exercise intensity

10

What is maximum oxygen uptake?

-Maximal oxygen uptake: The greatest amount of oxygen that can be used at the cellular level for the entire body

11

What is the equation for determining VO2max?

-Fick Equation
o VO2 = CO (aO2 – vO2 )
-CO = Cardiac Output
-aO2 = arterial blood oxygen content
-vO2 = venous blood oxygen content

12

What is cardiac output?

-The amount of blood pumped out of the heart in litres per minute (L/min) SV

13

What is the equation for cardiac output?

CO = HR x SV

14

What happens to cardiac output during exercise and why?

-Increases during exercise
Why?
-As a function of increases in HR and SV during exercise

15

What is heart rate?

-The number of times the heart beats per minute (beats per minute; bpm)

16

What happens to heart rate during exercise and why?

-HR increases during exercise
Why?
-Decreased/withdrawal parasympathetic stimulation and increased sympathetic stimulation,
-For the purpose of increasing the supply oxygen at a faster rate

17

What system is heart rate under?

-Heart Rate is under autonomic nervous control

18

What is the natural rhythm of heart rate?

100 bpm

19

What is the percentage of blood distribution in the body?

Heart= 7%
Pulmonary vessels= 9%
Systemic capillaries= 7%
Systemic arterics and arterioles= 13%
Systemic veins and venules= 64%

20

During exercise what does the ANS do?

-ANS regulates volume and distribution
-Sympathetic stimulation causes:
o Vasoconstriction and vasodilation depending on the bodies needs

21

What is stroke volume and the equation?

-Amount of blood pumped out of the heart each beat (l/min)
-SV = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume

22

What happens to stroke volume during exercise and why?

-Increases at the onset of exercise
Why?
-End-diastolic volume is increased by:
o Increased venoconstriction and
o Increased activity of the muscular pump (muscles contracting causing the blood to move faster through the one-way valves of the veins)
= increased venous return

23

What is blood pressure?

-Pressure blood exerts against the arterial walls
o Systolic blood pressure = the pressure exerted against the arterial walls as blood is forcefully ejected during ventricular contraction (during systole)

24

What happens to blood pressure during exercise and why?

-Increases with exercise
Why?
-Higher stroke volume
o Rest systolic BP = 110 -139 mmHg,
o Maximal aerobic exercise = 200 - 260 mmHg
-Diastolic blood pressure = the pressure exerted against the arterial walls when no blood is being forcefully ejected through the vessels (during diastole)
o Stays the same or decreases

25

What is aerobic exercise?

Greatest impact on both oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production

26

During aerobic exercise what happens?

-Large amounts of oxygen diffuse from the capillaries into the tissues
-Increased levels of carbon dioxide move from the tissue to the blood and blood to the alveoli
-Increased depth of breathing (Tidal Volume; VT)
-Increased frequency of breathing (f)
-Increased minute ventilation (VE)

27

What is the purpose for the responses to aerobic exercise?

-To maintain appropriate alveolar/blood concentrations of these gases

28

Why do chronic adaptations occur?

-Continued stimuli causes adaptation

29

What are respiratory adaptations during exercise?

-Pulmonary system has a big reserve (“overbuilt”) which meets the demands of vigorous exercise thus no need to change
-No consistent or significant changes of lung volumes or capacities
o Sport specific
-Land based no changes compared to non-athletes and athletes
-Swimming has seen increases in TLC and VC compared to land based and non-athletes
=Why swimmers breathing against a resistance, restricted breathing patter and repetition
-Maximal Exercise
o VE is increased
-Due to increase in frequency and VT
-Maintain voluntary ventilation due to improved strength and endurance on respiratory muscles
-Submax Exercise
o VT increases, frequency decreases
o Ventilation lower as a result of submax not being a major stress

30

What are muscular adaptations in exercise?

-Increase in the aerobic capacity of the trained musculature
o Increased capillary density
o Increase mitochondrial density
-This adaptation allows the athlete to perform a given absolute intensity of exercise with greater ease after aerobic endurance training