Week Ten Flashcards Preview

Exercise Science for Health > Week Ten > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week Ten Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...

What is aerobic exercise?

-Any activity that you can sustain for more than just a few minutes (‘Cardio Exercise’)
-Often considered the most important component of physical fitness and best indicator of overall health


What is cardiorespiratory endurance?

The ability of the lungs, heart and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity.


What are Endurance Sports?

-A subset of sports in which the goal is prolonged athletic output over an extended distance or for an extended period of time
-They are aerobic by nature
-In general, the athlete is required to cover a fixed distance in the shortest time possible


What is the average aerobic fitness of an adult and athlete?

-Average sedentary adult = 35 ml/kg/min
-Elite athletes can be as high as = 90 ml/kg/min


How do athletes get a high aerobic fitness?

-They may have good genes, but they also train hard!
-When they train their bodies adapt


Why do we need acute responses to aerobic exercise?

-To supply oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles at a faster rate and volume


What is the basic physiology of breathing?

-Oxygen is taken up by the alveoli in the lungs.
Blood passes through capillaries of the alveoli
-Oxygen is picked up by haemoglobin and transported to the heart
-Pumps oxygenated blood through the circulatory system to all organs and tissues in the body
-Oxygen is used to convert food through aerobic metabolism into adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Physical Exertion
-More ATP is needed to perform the activity
-Lungs, heart & blood vessels have to deliver more oxygen to the muscles to supply the required energy


During exercise what happens to the demand on oxygen and why?

-Oxygen demand during exercise increases
-Why? Muscles require more oxygen and nutrients (compared to rest) to produce the energy required for sustaining exercise


What is oxygen uptake related to?

-Mass of exercising muscle
-Metabolic efficiency
-Exercise intensity


What is maximum oxygen uptake?

-Maximal oxygen uptake: The greatest amount of oxygen that can be used at the cellular level for the entire body


What is the equation for determining VO2max?

-Fick Equation
o VO2 = CO (aO2 – vO2 )
-CO = Cardiac Output
-aO2 = arterial blood oxygen content
-vO2 = venous blood oxygen content


What is cardiac output?

-The amount of blood pumped out of the heart in litres per minute (L/min) SV


What is the equation for cardiac output?

CO = HR x SV


What happens to cardiac output during exercise and why?

-Increases during exercise
-As a function of increases in HR and SV during exercise


What is heart rate?

-The number of times the heart beats per minute (beats per minute; bpm)


What happens to heart rate during exercise and why?

-HR increases during exercise
-Decreased/withdrawal parasympathetic stimulation and increased sympathetic stimulation,
-For the purpose of increasing the supply oxygen at a faster rate


What system is heart rate under?

-Heart Rate is under autonomic nervous control


What is the natural rhythm of heart rate?

100 bpm


What is the percentage of blood distribution in the body?

Heart= 7%
Pulmonary vessels= 9%
Systemic capillaries= 7%
Systemic arterics and arterioles= 13%
Systemic veins and venules= 64%


During exercise what does the ANS do?

-ANS regulates volume and distribution
-Sympathetic stimulation causes:
o Vasoconstriction and vasodilation depending on the bodies needs


What is stroke volume and the equation?

-Amount of blood pumped out of the heart each beat (l/min)
-SV = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume


What happens to stroke volume during exercise and why?

-Increases at the onset of exercise
-End-diastolic volume is increased by:
o Increased venoconstriction and
o Increased activity of the muscular pump (muscles contracting causing the blood to move faster through the one-way valves of the veins)
= increased venous return


What is blood pressure?

-Pressure blood exerts against the arterial walls
o Systolic blood pressure = the pressure exerted against the arterial walls as blood is forcefully ejected during ventricular contraction (during systole)


What happens to blood pressure during exercise and why?

-Increases with exercise
-Higher stroke volume
o Rest systolic BP = 110 -139 mmHg,
o Maximal aerobic exercise = 200 - 260 mmHg
-Diastolic blood pressure = the pressure exerted against the arterial walls when no blood is being forcefully ejected through the vessels (during diastole)
o Stays the same or decreases


What is aerobic exercise?

Greatest impact on both oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production


During aerobic exercise what happens?

-Large amounts of oxygen diffuse from the capillaries into the tissues
-Increased levels of carbon dioxide move from the tissue to the blood and blood to the alveoli
-Increased depth of breathing (Tidal Volume; VT)
-Increased frequency of breathing (f)
-Increased minute ventilation (VE)


What is the purpose for the responses to aerobic exercise?

-To maintain appropriate alveolar/blood concentrations of these gases


Why do chronic adaptations occur?

-Continued stimuli causes adaptation


What are respiratory adaptations during exercise?

-Pulmonary system has a big reserve (“overbuilt”) which meets the demands of vigorous exercise thus no need to change
-No consistent or significant changes of lung volumes or capacities
o Sport specific
-Land based no changes compared to non-athletes and athletes
-Swimming has seen increases in TLC and VC compared to land based and non-athletes
=Why swimmers breathing against a resistance, restricted breathing patter and repetition
-Maximal Exercise
o VE is increased
-Due to increase in frequency and VT
-Maintain voluntary ventilation due to improved strength and endurance on respiratory muscles
-Submax Exercise
o VT increases, frequency decreases
o Ventilation lower as a result of submax not being a major stress


What are muscular adaptations in exercise?

-Increase in the aerobic capacity of the trained musculature
o Increased capillary density
o Increase mitochondrial density
-This adaptation allows the athlete to perform a given absolute intensity of exercise with greater ease after aerobic endurance training