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Flashcards in Week One Deck (36)
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1

What is the definition of Physical Activity?

Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure

2

What does Physical Activity categorise into?

-Occupational
-Sports
-Conditioning
-Household

3

What are the elements for Physical Activity?

1.Bodily movements via skeletal muscles
2.Results in energy expenditure
3.Energy expenditure (kcals/kJ) varies continuously from low to high
4.Positively correlated with physical fitness

4

What are the elements for Exercise?

1.Bodily movement via skeletal muscles
2.Results in energy expenditure
3.Energy expenditure (kcals/kJ) varies continuously from low to high
4.Positively correlated with physical fitness
5.Planned structured and repetitive bodily movements
6.An objective is to improve or maintain physical fitness components

5

What is Exercise?

Is a type of physical activity consisting of planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and/or maintain one or more components of physical fitness

6

What is the definition of Physical Fitness?

The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies

7

What is Physical Fitness determined & What components does it include?

-Determined by a combination of regular activity and genetically inherited ability
-Includes a number of components that fit into two categories:
o Health and Skill

8

What are the Health Related Components and describe them?

Cardiorespiratory Endurance
-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate metabolic waste by-products.
Muscular Strength
-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of muscle to exert force typically in a single effort.
Muscular Endurance
-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of a muscle to exert force repeatedly without fatigue.
Flexibility
-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the range of motion available at a joint.
Body Composition
-A health related component of physical fitness that relates to the relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone and other vital parts of the body.

9

What are the Skill Related Components and describe them?

Speed
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to perform a movement within a short period of time.
Agility
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to change the position of the body in space with speed and accuracy.
Balance
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving.
Coordination
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to use the senses, such as sight and hearing, together with body parts in performing tasks smoothly and accurately.
Reaction Time
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of the reaction to do it.
Power
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability or rate at which one can perform work.

10

What are the benefits of regular physical activity and exercise?

-Improved cardiovascular and respiratory function
o Decreased HR and BP at submaximal intensity
o Increased maximal oxygen uptake
-Reduced cardiovascular disease risk  Reduced resting SPB/DPB
o Reduced body fat
-Decreased Morbidity and Mortality
o Primary prevention
-Prevention of initial occurrence
o Secondary prevention
-Prevention of a subsequent occurrence after an initial cardiac event
-Decreased Anxiety
-Improved metabolic health
-Improved cognitive function
-Enhanced well-being
-Enhanced physical function (functional capacity)

11

What Aerobic Exercise & Physical Activity is recommended for healthy adults?

-Rhythmic exercise that uses large muscle groups
-At least 5 days per week for 30-60 min/day (≥ 150 min per week) of moderate intensity exercise or
-At least 3 days per week for 20-60 min/day (≥ 75 min/week) of vigorous intensity exercise

12

How can a person meet the recommendation for Aerobic Exercise for a healthy person?

-A combination of both moderate and vigorous bouts of exercise
-e.g. Walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days
-Recommended amount may be accumulated by doing bouts of 10 minutes or in one whole session
-<20min can be beneficial in previously sedentary individuals.

13

How many days should each major muscle group be trained and how much rest between sessions?

-Each major muscle group should be trained 2-3 days/week, 48 hours rest b/w sessions

14

What are the major muscle groups?

-Biceps
-Triceps
-Shoulder
-Upper Back
-Abdominals
-Adductors
-Thigh
-Hamstrings
-Calves

15

During resistance exercise

-Volume = 2-4 sets of 8-12 reps, 2-3 minutes rest b/w sets
o Depending on the goal (Strength, Power, Endurance, Hypertrophy)

16

How often should Flexibility training take place, what does it target and describe the process of how you do flexibility training?

-≥ 2 – 3 days/week
-Target all primary joints
-Minimum 10 seconds aim for 30 seconds
-To the point of tightness or slight discomfort
-Each major muscle-tendon group

17

What are the national physical activity guidelines for adults and describe each one?

1. Think of movement as an opportunity, not an inconvenience
-Change the way of thinking; where any form of movement of the body is seen as an opportunity for improving health, not as a time-wasting inconvenience.
2. Be active every day in as many ways as you can
-Make a habit of walking or cycling instead of using the car, or do things yourself instead of using labour-saving machines
3. Put together at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days
-You can accumulate your 30 minutes (or more) of exercise throughout the day by combining a few shorter sessions of activity of around 10 to 15 minutes each
4. If you can, also enjoy some regular, vigorous activity for extra health and fitness
-This guideline does not replace Guidelines 1-3 but adds an extra level for those who are able, and wish, to achieve greater health and fitness benefits.

18

What does Intensity training refer to?

-Refers to the rate at which work is being performed or the magnitude of the effort required to perform an activity or exercise

19

What is absolute intensity determined by and what does relative intensity take into account?

-Absolute intensity: Determined by the rate of work being performed, does not take into account the physiological capacity of the individual”
-Relative intensity: Takes into account or adjusts to an individual’s exercise capacity

20

Describe absolute intensity

-The rate of energy expenditure (e.g. milliliters of oxygen being consumed per kilogram per minute, kilocalories per minute, or METs)
-The speed of the activity (e.g. walking at 4 km/hr, jogging 10 km/hr)
-Physiological response to the intensity (e.g. heart rate)
-The amount of weight lifted or moved

21

Describe relative intensity

-A % of an individual’s aerobic capacity (VO2max) or maximum heart rate
-An index of how hard an individual feels he or she is exercising (e.g. on a scale)
-A % of an individual’s maximum weight lifted

22

How do you measure intensity with the talk test?

-Simple test
-Light intensity = Can talk and sing without puffing
-Moderate intensity = Can comfortably talk, but not sing
-Vigorous intensity = Can’t say more than a few words without gasping for breath

23

How do you measure intensity with the borg scale?

Borg Scale; Rating perceived Exertion (RPE)

24

How do you measure intensity with the ratio 10 scale?

-More useful for statistical analysis
-Does not correspond with any physiological measures such as heart rate
-Session RPE (sRPE)
o Asked ~10 min after entire session

25

What is the relationship between HR and intensity? What is the equation for HR?

-Positive relationship with HR and intensity
-Age Predicted Maximum HR equations:
o 220 – Age
o 208 – 0.7 x age

26

When is lactate produced? What is the relationship between Blood Lactate and intensity? In order to maintain intensity what happens?

-Lactate is produced when the intensity of exercise is of a sufficiently high intensity whereby the O2 demand cannot be met
-In order to maintain intensity, the body relies on producing energy via anaerobic pathways in which the by-product lactate is produced
-Positive relationship with intensity

27

What are the risks associated with physical activity/exercise?

-Increased risk of musculoskeletal injury
o Most common
o Associated with intensity
-Potential for cardiovascular complications
o Sudden cardiac event
o Myocardial infarction
-Usually associated with vigorous intensity
-Risk in healthy, asymptomatic = very low = 0.3-0.8 (fatal) and 1.4 (nonfatal) per 10000 tests
-Risk of fatality = 0.01/10 000 hours
o Greater if vigorous and in those that are inactive

28

How do you weigh up the risks?

1. Medical history & risk factors determine exercise risk
2. The risk of CV complications increase during exercise
3. The risk of CV complications may be unacceptably high in some situations (related to the interaction between medical history and exercise intensity)
o But regular physical activity decreases CVD!
The risk of a prolonged sedentary lifestyle far outweighs the slight increase in risk of exercise in the vast majority of individuals.

29

Describe the stages in Pre-Exercise Health Screening?

-Self-assessment questionnaire stage
o To be checked and confirmed by exercise scientist
-Interview stage
o Exercise and medical history
o List of medications
-Physical assessment stage
o Resting BP
o Anthropometry (BMI, W:H ratio, skinfolds)
o Metabolic assessment

30

What is the purpose of the pre-exercise health screening?

-Purpose is to identify people:
1. With medical contradictions to exercise
2. Signs and symptoms of clinical disease
3. Risk factors that need consideration when exercising
4. With special needs