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Flashcards in Week Two Deck (42)
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1

What did the gene pool evolve from and what did humans develop?

-Gene pool evolved from hunter-gatherer lifestyle; physical activity required for food procurement
-Humans developed “thrifty genes” – genes that maximise metabolic efficiency
-Little change in human gene pool over 10 000 years

2

What is thrifty storage?

Replenish skeletal muscle glucose and TG: more efficient storage of excess glucose and TG in adipose tissue.

3

What does more thrifty storage equal?

More likely to survive through the next famine/activity phase until next feast.

4

During a famine or activity what happens?

Decrease in glycogen and TG stores.

5

What occurs during the feast?

Intake of glucose and fat

6

What occurs in the stalling of a famine or activity?

-No cycling of metabolic processes= fuel gets shunted into an even greater and unhealthy storage.
-Feast= Unlimited food supply with no exercise
-Thrifty storage exists but famine and physical activity are not utilised

7

What is the result of evolution on energy expenditure?

-Average energy expenditure of modern humans is 38% of H-G ancestors

8

How do you find out the current health status of the population?

-How do we find out?
o Large scale surveys
-Phone surveys
-Need to be quick
-Need to be easy for the participant to answer

9

What are METs?

-Another method to estimate intensity
-MET’s (metabolic equivalent) denotes the energy required to complete a task/activity

10

What do we need to perform activity and what does 1 MET equal?

-We need O2 to perform activity, thus measuring oxygen consumption is the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure
o 1 MET = 3.5 ml/kg/min-1
-Ainsworth et al. (2000) has calculated the MET’S associated with a variety of different activities:
EXAMPLE
-Boxing in a ring (77 kg) = 17.1 METS
-Axe chopping (77 kg) = 22.9 METS
-Playing a Flute (77 kg) = 2.7 METS

11

What is the purpose of surveys in Australia?

-To inform Australia’s decisions by providing objective, trusted and relevant data and statistics on a range of matters including economic, social and population.

12

What is the World Health Organisation?

-“Direct and coordinate international health within the united nations system” (WHO website)
-Provide global statistics

13

What is the global inactivity percentages and where is it most prevalent?

-2008 – 31% of adults ≥ 15 were inactive
o Females = 34%
o Males = 28%
o Highest in Americas and Eastern Mediterranean
o Lowest in South East Asia

14

In the National Health Survey what was the percentage of inactivity, insufficiently active and what is recommended?

-Recommended Level of PA = 55.5%
-Insufficiently Active: 30%
-Inactive: 15%

15

In the Australian Health Survey what were the results?

-1/3 of children and 1/10 young people did the recommended 60 minutes of activity per day
-60% of adults did less than recommended

16

What is inactivity?

-Not meeting the current recommendations for physical activity
o Less that 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week (< 150 min/week)

17

Why are people inactive?

-Why?
o Decrease in the amount of leisure time physical activity
o Increase in sedentary time in occupational and domestic duties

18

What is the Health Burdon of Inactivity?

-Chronic inactivity is physiologically abnormal
o Human bodies fail to function properly to maintain health in many different ways when there is a loss of adequate amounts (historically ‘‘normal’’ amounts) of physical activity

19

Define morbidity, mortality, all cause mortality and disease.

-Morbidity – a diseased state, the existence of disease
-Mortality – subject to death
-All-cause mortality – all deaths that occur in a population
-Disease – a disorder of structure or function in a human that produces specific symptoms

20

Define chronic disease and non communicable disease.

-Chronic disease – a disease that persists for some time or has long lasting effects (more than three months)
o E.g. asthma, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis
-Non communicable disease – condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non transmissible).
o Can be chronic
-E.g. Chronic kidney disease, diabetes, asthma, Alzheimer’s

21

What is the global burdon of inactivity?

-Inactivity attributed to 3.2 million deaths in 2008
-Physical inactivity = 4th cause of death due to non-communicable disease = 3 million (6%) preventable deaths every year

22

How is burdon measured and what is it calculated as?

-For the individual:
o Morbidity and mortality are measured using the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
-One DALY is a lost year of ‘healthy’ life
o DALY = YLL + YLD
o YLL = Years of Life Lost
o YLD = Years Lived with Disability
-Calculated as a combination of years of life lost due to premature mortality and equivalent ‘healthy’ years of life lost due to disability (morbidity)

23

For society what is the economic burdon of inactivity?

-Economic burden – Cost $$$$
o Direct costs – associated with utilisation of healthcare resources, largest component is the cost of hospital admissions
o Indirect costs – premature retirement, absenteeism, carer costs

24

What are Co-Morbidities of Inactivity?

-Modifiable risk factor for mortality and chronic disease
o Physical fitness vs physical activity= strong relationship with health outcomes
o Steeper for physical fitness

25

What is Epidemiology?

-Study of the distribution and determinants of disease or injury
-Physical activity epidemiologists – interest in effect of physical inactivity on disease and injury

26

What is Cardiovascular Disease, what are the most common and what is the main cause?

-Term used for conditions of the heart and/or vessels
-Most common:
o Coronary heart disease (CHD)
o Stroke
o Heart Failure
-Main cause of CVD is the process of atherosclerosis

27

What are the Demographic and hereditary factors of cardiovascular disease?

-age
-sex
-family history of CVD disease

28

What are the behavioural factors of cardiovascular disease?

-tobacco smoking
-physical inactivity
-poor nutrition (diet high in saturated fats)
-high consumption of alcohol

29

What are the Physiological risk factors of cardiovascular disease?

-Physiological risk factors
o high blood pressure/ hypertension
o high blood cholesterol / blood lipids
o overweight and obesity
o diabetes mellitus

30

What is the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Australia?

-2011-2012 = 22% had CVD
-Attributable to 30% of 2012 deaths
-11% of hospitalisations