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What did the gene pool evolve from and what did humans develop?

-Gene pool evolved from hunter-gatherer lifestyle; physical activity required for food procurement
-Humans developed “thrifty genes” – genes that maximise metabolic efficiency
-Little change in human gene pool over 10 000 years


What is thrifty storage?

Replenish skeletal muscle glucose and TG: more efficient storage of excess glucose and TG in adipose tissue.


What does more thrifty storage equal?

More likely to survive through the next famine/activity phase until next feast.


During a famine or activity what happens?

Decrease in glycogen and TG stores.


What occurs during the feast?

Intake of glucose and fat


What occurs in the stalling of a famine or activity?

-No cycling of metabolic processes= fuel gets shunted into an even greater and unhealthy storage.
-Feast= Unlimited food supply with no exercise
-Thrifty storage exists but famine and physical activity are not utilised


What is the result of evolution on energy expenditure?

-Average energy expenditure of modern humans is 38% of H-G ancestors


How do you find out the current health status of the population?

-How do we find out?
o Large scale surveys
-Phone surveys
-Need to be quick
-Need to be easy for the participant to answer


What are METs?

-Another method to estimate intensity
-MET’s (metabolic equivalent) denotes the energy required to complete a task/activity


What do we need to perform activity and what does 1 MET equal?

-We need O2 to perform activity, thus measuring oxygen consumption is the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure
o 1 MET = 3.5 ml/kg/min-1
-Ainsworth et al. (2000) has calculated the MET’S associated with a variety of different activities:
-Boxing in a ring (77 kg) = 17.1 METS
-Axe chopping (77 kg) = 22.9 METS
-Playing a Flute (77 kg) = 2.7 METS


What is the purpose of surveys in Australia?

-To inform Australia’s decisions by providing objective, trusted and relevant data and statistics on a range of matters including economic, social and population.


What is the World Health Organisation?

-“Direct and coordinate international health within the united nations system” (WHO website)
-Provide global statistics


What is the global inactivity percentages and where is it most prevalent?

-2008 – 31% of adults ≥ 15 were inactive
o Females = 34%
o Males = 28%
o Highest in Americas and Eastern Mediterranean
o Lowest in South East Asia


In the National Health Survey what was the percentage of inactivity, insufficiently active and what is recommended?

-Recommended Level of PA = 55.5%
-Insufficiently Active: 30%
-Inactive: 15%


In the Australian Health Survey what were the results?

-1/3 of children and 1/10 young people did the recommended 60 minutes of activity per day
-60% of adults did less than recommended


What is inactivity?

-Not meeting the current recommendations for physical activity
o Less that 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week (< 150 min/week)


Why are people inactive?

o Decrease in the amount of leisure time physical activity
o Increase in sedentary time in occupational and domestic duties


What is the Health Burdon of Inactivity?

-Chronic inactivity is physiologically abnormal
o Human bodies fail to function properly to maintain health in many different ways when there is a loss of adequate amounts (historically ‘‘normal’’ amounts) of physical activity


Define morbidity, mortality, all cause mortality and disease.

-Morbidity – a diseased state, the existence of disease
-Mortality – subject to death
-All-cause mortality – all deaths that occur in a population
-Disease – a disorder of structure or function in a human that produces specific symptoms


Define chronic disease and non communicable disease.

-Chronic disease – a disease that persists for some time or has long lasting effects (more than three months)
o E.g. asthma, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis
-Non communicable disease – condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non transmissible).
o Can be chronic
-E.g. Chronic kidney disease, diabetes, asthma, Alzheimer’s


What is the global burdon of inactivity?

-Inactivity attributed to 3.2 million deaths in 2008
-Physical inactivity = 4th cause of death due to non-communicable disease = 3 million (6%) preventable deaths every year


How is burdon measured and what is it calculated as?

-For the individual:
o Morbidity and mortality are measured using the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
-One DALY is a lost year of ‘healthy’ life
o YLL = Years of Life Lost
o YLD = Years Lived with Disability
-Calculated as a combination of years of life lost due to premature mortality and equivalent ‘healthy’ years of life lost due to disability (morbidity)


For society what is the economic burdon of inactivity?

-Economic burden – Cost $$$$
o Direct costs – associated with utilisation of healthcare resources, largest component is the cost of hospital admissions
o Indirect costs – premature retirement, absenteeism, carer costs


What are Co-Morbidities of Inactivity?

-Modifiable risk factor for mortality and chronic disease
o Physical fitness vs physical activity= strong relationship with health outcomes
o Steeper for physical fitness


What is Epidemiology?

-Study of the distribution and determinants of disease or injury
-Physical activity epidemiologists – interest in effect of physical inactivity on disease and injury


What is Cardiovascular Disease, what are the most common and what is the main cause?

-Term used for conditions of the heart and/or vessels
-Most common:
o Coronary heart disease (CHD)
o Stroke
o Heart Failure
-Main cause of CVD is the process of atherosclerosis


What are the Demographic and hereditary factors of cardiovascular disease?

-family history of CVD disease


What are the behavioural factors of cardiovascular disease?

-tobacco smoking
-physical inactivity
-poor nutrition (diet high in saturated fats)
-high consumption of alcohol


What are the Physiological risk factors of cardiovascular disease?

-Physiological risk factors
o high blood pressure/ hypertension
o high blood cholesterol / blood lipids
o overweight and obesity
o diabetes mellitus


What is the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Australia?

-2011-2012 = 22% had CVD
-Attributable to 30% of 2012 deaths
-11% of hospitalisations