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Describe the Aerobic & Anaerobic Exercise Systems

-Food is the main source of energy for the body
-Fuel from food is required to provide energy for:
o Basal Metabolic Rate: the amount of energy required to maintain the most basic bodily processes and
o Physical activity and exercise performance
-Energy may be produced under two conditions:
-Aerobic = “with oxygen”
o Aerobic (oxidative) Metabolism = energy is made available when there is enough O2 present
-Anaerobic = “without oxygen”
o Anaerobic Metabolism = energy is made available without O2


What is maximal Aerobic Capacity/Power and what is the measure you use?

-Terminology: Maximal aerobic capacity / aerobic power / maximal oxygen uptake / VO2max
-Maximal Aerobic Capacity: one’s maximum capacity to generate ATP aerobically
-VO2max is the measure we use to quantify this
o = a measure of one’s fitness


What does exercise place on the body, what does aerobic capacity represent and what couples up?

-Exercise places an increased demand on the body’s systems
-Close coupling of CV and pulmonary systems function
o Delivery of O2 and nutrients to skeletal muscle
o Removal of metabolic by-products
-Aerobic capacity represents the functional capabilities of the lungs, heart, blood, blood vessels and skeletal muscles.


How do you test maximal aerobic capacity, what is the purpose and what does it provide?

-Purpose: Maximal aerobic power tests evaluate the capacity of the bodies systems to facilitate oxidative metabolism
-O2 consumption reflects ATP produced by the aerobic energy system
-VO2max test is the gold standard for measuring aerobic capacity
-Provides the simultaneous evaluation of the CV and respiratory system
-Typically done under laboratory conditions


What are the general rules of VO2 max protocol?

-Graded Exercise Test (GXT)
-General Rules;
o Consists of blocks of time ≤ 5 min
o Intensity increases with each block
o Continuous vs. non-continuous
-1 min break between blocks
-Assists with taking physiological measures
o ~ 20 min in duration
-Prior knowledge of athletes max running speed can assist with setting the speeds
-Participant voluntary terminates the test when they can no longer continue


What is the mode of test in VO2 max tests?

-VO2max tests should replicate the movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport the individual participates in
-Portable machines allow VO2max to be calculated in the field increasing the validity of the result
-Recall validity = the degree that the test is measuring what it is supposed to measure
-Brand e.g. COSMED


What are the pros and cons of a treadmill exercise?

o Walking/running are more natural
o Large muscle groups
o Higher VO2max
o Less safe
o Expensive
o Large space


What are the pros and cons to a bike exercise?

o Less expensive
o Occupies less space
o Less intimidating
o Less artefact
o Leg fatigue
o Lower VO2max


What can variations reflect?

-Variations can reflect differences in quantity of muscle mass
-For the general population:
o Cycle ergometer underestimates VO2max on treadmill by ~10%


What are the norms for ml.kg.min-1 and describe it?

-Active Individuals can range between:
o Males = 44-50 ml.kg.min-1
o Females = 38-42 ml.kg.min-1
-The values are often reported in ml.kg.min-1 as opposed to L.min-1 to account for differences between individuals body mass
o Person A = 6 L.min-1 ; body mass = 90 kg
o Person B = 5.5 L.min-1 ; body mass = 70 kg
-To convert to ml.kg.min-1 = L.min-1 x 1000 / BM (kg)
o Person A = 6 L.min-1 x 1000 / 90kg = 67 ml.kg.min-1
o Person B = 5.5 L.min-1 x 1000 / 70 kg = 79 ml.kg.min-1


How do you make something relative and what is absolute and relative?

-This equation comes up all the time please remember!
-Absolute = raw amount
-Relative = accounting (making it relative) for body weight
o X / body mass
-Start identifying units of measurement (be accurate)
o E.g. heart rate = bpm
o Weight = kg
o Height = cm and/or m


What factors influence VO2 max?

Health Status
Motor Skills
Training adaptation and regime


What are the strengths and limitations in VO2 max evaluation?

-Accuracy (not an estimation)
-Provides comprehensive CV and respiratory assessment
-Cost ~ $300
-Technical expertise required
-Reduced ability to monitor patients’ symptoms
-Patient discomfort and apprehension


What is the shuttle test?

-Consider the general principles of conducting a maximal aerobic test
o Similar to the setup of the shuttle test
-20 m shuttle course
-Blocks of time that increase intensity
-Auditory cues set the pace
-Terminated when exhausted


What are the strengths and limitations in the shuttle test?

-Cheap and easy to perform
-Large numbers of participants can be tested
-Externally paced
-Only provides an evaluation of global functional ability
-In test monitoring is difficult (as with most field tests)


What do you expect during a max test for the RPE?

-Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
o RPE will increase linearly with increasing intensity
o Final RPE should be 19-20


What do you expect during a max test for systolic blood pressure?

Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) will increase with increasing intensity
-Final SBP can exceed 200 mmHg
-Reports of 240 mmHg
-Increases in response to the increased demand on the CV and respiratory system


What do you expect during a max test for the diastolic blood pressure?

Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) will remain stable or slightly decrease
-Pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest
-Vasodilation occurs which results in this decrease


What is something to take note when taking blood pressure?

When taking BP during exercise diastolic can sometime still be heard until 20 mmHg. If this is the case take DBP at Korotkoff Phase 4 – muffled sound


What do you expect during a max test for heart rate?

-HR will increase linearly with increasing intensity
-Final HR should be at its maximum
-A plateau will occur
-Estimated HR max = 208 - 0.7 x age


Describe maximal anaerobic capacity/power

-Anaerobic capacity is the maximal/total amount of energy released via the anaerobic energy systems (immediate and short-term system)
-Anaerobic power is the maximal rate of anaerobic energy (ATP) production
o Usually measured in watts (W)


How do you test the immediate energy system?

-Performed at maximal and supramaximal intensity
-Take about 1-6 seconds
-Examples of tests:
o 1 Repetition Max (1RM)
o Height of a Vertical Jump
o Staircase Sprint (Margaria-Kalamen Test)
o 40 m sprint


How do you test the short-term energy system?

-Popular test = Wingate Anaerobic Test (WANT)
-30 second all out sprint
o Maximal effort
-Wind-braked or mechanically braked cycle ergometer
-Set at a resistance dependent on body mass
o = 0.075 x body mass
-Measure of anaerobic leg power


What are the results of the WANT?

-Power vs. Time graph
o Typically, will follow a decreasing pattern
-Relative Power = PP / Body Mass n Least power
-Anaerobic fatigue - % decline
-Anaerobic work
-What do we do with these results:
o Assess progress
o Determine training intensities


Describe power vs capacity?

-Anaerobic power is measured via the peak watts achieved during short maximal tests e.g. WANT
-WANT is a good test for anaerobic power
-However not so good for measuring the total amount of energy produced by the anaerobic systems (capacity)


Why (power vs capacity)?

-Duration is too short to exhaust the anaerobic systems
-All energy systems are always working for every exercise. The difference is in the predominant one at a particular time.
o Aerobic energy system does contribute during a 30 s all out test which is not accounted for in the calculation of work and thus capacity
= inaccurate


What are the steps is maximal accumulating O2 Deficit?

-Step 1
o Perform multiple increasing bouts of submaximal intensity to determine a liner regression between VO2 and power
o Extrapolate to supramaximal workloads
-Step 2
o Complete 2-3 minutes of supramaximal exercise until exhaustion collecting VO2
-Step 3
o Complete a VO2 max test


What should you expect during a max anaerobic test?

-HR, BP and RPE by the end will all be near maximum
-Nausea may present even several minutes after the completion of the test


Describe the termination of a test

-Similar to most exercise tests
-Test that are only 30 seconds and of maximal intensity monitoring skills must be heightened


When should you terminate a test?

o If the subject wishes to
o Unduly distressed / form fatigue / technique deterioration
o Equipment failure
o Onset of angina
o Poor perfusion; light headedness, confusion nausea
o Leg cramps, wheezing
o Physical or verbal signs of severe fatigue