Flashcards in Week Six Deck (27)
Why should you assess Cardiorespiratory Fitness?
-Cardiorespiratory fitness is a good indicator of health and functionality of the body
What considerations should be taken when choosing a maximal test?
-Availability of trained personnel
-Availability of specialised equipment
-Clients have to reach volitional exhaustion
-Are they capable of exercising at a maximal intensity??
Why choose sub-maximal and what considerations must be taken?
-Some individuals are incapable of being put through a maximal test
o The elderly
o Unfit / overweight
o Those that are stratified as moderate to high risk
-Therefore, we carry out submaximal tests which are capable of predicting maximal aerobic capacity / VO2max
What are the advantages of sub-maximal compared to maximal tests?
-Less complex equipment and easy to use
-Generally, can be done in the field
-Requires lower intensity
-Less medical risk
-Still does require close monitoring as you sometimes do submaximal tests on higher risk clients
What results can you get by sub-maximal tests?
-VO2max can be estimated by using an exercise test on an ergometer whereby workloads of increasing intensity for a given duration are completed and data from the test is placed in estimating equations
-The HR response to these workloads is what’s required for this to occur
What is the relationship between heart rate and work rate?
-A linear relationship exists between HR and WR from rest to VO2max therefore extrapolation to the maximum is possible
What is the linearity of heart rate vs work rate?
o A high environmental temperature
o A recent meal
o Ingestion of alcohol
o Prolonged heavy exercise
What is basal heart rate?
HR while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, whereby the digestive system is inactive
What is resting heart rate?
Awake but lying/sitting down and not having immediately exerted themselves
What is pre-exercise heart rate?
HR immediately prior to exercise - commonly affected by physiological/psychological anticipation of exercise
o Usually taken in the position that your about to exercise in
What is a steady state heart rate?
HR increases fairly rapidly with increasing intensity
o When work rate is constant the demand for oxygen is being met by its supply and thus creates a plateau in HR
o This plateau in heart rate is known as steady-state heart rate (HRSS)
o ± 5 bpm
How do you achieve a steady state heart rate?
-In order to achieve HRSS it is vitally important to maintain intensity
o Speed (e.g. metronome)
o Resistance (e.g. kp on a monark)
What is maximum heart rate?
Highest HR value achieved in an all-out effort to the point of exhaustion
o Age predicted HRmax
= 220 – age
-Tanaka et al. 2001 =208 – 0.7 x age
When do you terminate a sub-maximal test based on heart rate?
-Calculation of max HR is important for submaximal tests
o Terminate at 85% HRmax
What is post test heart rate?
HR taken immediately post exercise test, within 10 seconds
What is recovery heart rate?
Refers to the decline in heart rate after exercise
What assumptions need to be achieved in order for a submax test to provide accurate VO2 max from heart rate?
-If all the following assumptions are achieved, then the given submaximal test can provide an accurate VO2max from HR
o A steady state (HR) is achieved for each work rate
o HR and WR exists as a liner relationship
o The VO2max is indicated by the maximal workload
o There is a uniform maximal HR for a given age
o Mechanical efficiency is the same for everyone
o The subject is not on medications that alter HR
How do you monitor a submax test and Is blood pressure measured?
-Although HR measurements need to be accurate other measures such as RPE and blood pressure should also still be taken
-Always good to take at the end of each stage to help with termination criteria
-BP not required to calculate CRF but good to take
-Could detect hypo or hyper values
Describe the queens college step test
-3 minutes of stepping at a height of 41.25 cm
-In time with a metronome
o Females 88 bpm (22 steps per minute)
o Males 96 bpm (24 steps per minute)
-HR is measure immediately post (5-20 seconds) completion
Describe the TMCA 3 minute step test
-3 minutes of stepping (30.5 cm)
-In time with a metronome set at 96 bpm
-HR taken after 1 min post test
o To determine how quickly HR declines
o The fitter one is the quicker HR will decline post exercise
Describe the astrand rhyming test
-A single WR is chosen
-The client then cycles for a minimum duration of 6 min
-If the heart rate reaches steady state between the 5th and 6th minute the test can come to a completion
o In addition, if HR is between 125-170 bpm = more accurate results
o If HRSS is not reached, intensity is increased, and exercise is continued for 3 minutes
o If HRSS is reached between the 8th and 9th minute the test is completed
-HR is averaged between the last two minutes and used in the nomogram
What are the directions for the YMCA test?
1. Set the 1st work rate at 150kgm/min (0.5 at 50 rpm)
2. If the HR in the third minute of the stage is:
<80, set the 2nd stage at 750kgm/min (2.5kg at 50 rpm)
80-90, set the 2nd stage at 600kgm/min (2.0kg at 50 rpm)
90-100, set the 2nd stage at 450kgm/min (1.5kg at 50 rpm)
>100, set the 2nd stage at 300kgm/min (1.0kg at 50 rpm)
3. Set the 3rd and 4th (if required) according to the work rates in the columns below the 2nd loads.
-Criteria to move to next workload One
o The difference between the last two minutes:
o EG: 115-112 = 3 bpm
-YES, steady state has been reached
-Criteria to move to next workload Two
o The difference between the last two minutes:
o EG: 111-119 = 8 bpm
-NO steady state has not been reached
o Go for another minute to reach steady state
o Keep going until reached, ideally within 5 minutes
o EG: 119-120 = 1 bpm
-YES, steady state has been reached so can move to workload 2
How do you determine revolutions per min and what do you do when it doesnt work?
-On a Monark
o Look at the bell side of the bike for resistance (kp)
o Look at the screen for RPM
-If RPM isn’t working
o Use a metronome
o 50 rpm = 100 bpm / 100 downstrokes
What is the post care take for a submax test?
-Ensure post exercise care is performed
o Cool down
o General monitoring
How do you work out VO2max in a submax test?
-Max predicted workload = 1125 kmp.min-1
-VO2max = 1.8 x 1125 / body mass (67 kg) + 7
-VO2max = 37.2 ml.kg.min-1
-Use normative table to ascertain qualitative descriptions
Recall the three steps of feedback
Step 1. Explain the test
o What was completed and why relevant for that person
o May want to point out limitations but positively
Step 2. State the results
o Quantitative and qualitative
Step 3: Can the results be maintained or improved
o Can they be improved?
o Do they need to improve?
o How can they be improved?