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1

Describe the progression of dealing with a client

1. Informed consent and pre-screening
2. Training at low to moderate intensity
3. Assessment of fitness (based on goals of the client)
4. Training program (based on goals of the client)

2

What participant information should be collected and why should you get informed consent?

-Gathering of personal information and performing procedures with associated risk
o An Informed Consent Form and Participant information sheet should include:
-Explaining the purpose of the assessments
-Describing the procedures/responsibilities of the participant/client
o What they need to do – lay terms
-Outlining the risks/discomforts and benefits
-Outlining how the client/participant can ask questions
-Explaining how their data will be handled/stored/de-identified
-Explaining that the client can withdraw at any time

3

Why is pre-screening important?

-Vitally important
-Qualified to train healthy individuals
o Always remember scope of practice
o If unsure ask/consult

4

What are the components of physical fitness (health)?

-Cardiorespiratory Endurance
-Body Composition
-Muscular Strength
-Muscular Endurance
-Flexibility

5

What are the components of physical fitness (skill)?

-Reaction Time
-Power
-Speed
-Agility
-Coordination
-Balance

6

What are the purposes of fitness assessments?

-Collecting baseline data and comparing to age and sex specific normative data therefore educating the client on their health status
o Identify strengths and weaknesses
-To inform exercise prescription and ensure it is individualised to the client’s initial values and goals
-To evaluate an exercise programs effectiveness and allow long term monitoring
-Motivation

7

What are the types of laboratory based fitness tests?

o Allows for greater control of conditions (environment) and administration
o Enables better supervision
o One client at a time
o Availability of specialised equipment

8

What are the types of field based fitness tests?

o Sometimes allows greater validity
-Closer replication of real-life situations
-Research and results in the field are easily/more transferable to sports
o Harder to control

9

Describe muscular strength, power and endurance tests

Muscular Strength Tests
-Multi-Stage Tests
-1RM or Estimations of 1RM
Muscular Power Tests
-Vertical Jump
-Broad Jump
-1RM Power Clean
Muscular Endurance Tests
-Push Up Endurance Test

10

Describe cardiorespiratory endurance and agility tests

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Fitness Tests
-Beep Test
Agility Tests
-T-Test
-Illinois Test

11

Describe flexibility and body composition tests?

Flexibility Tests
-Sit and Reach Test
Body Composition Tests
-Skin Folds
-BMI
-Girth Measurements

12

Why do you asses body composition?

-Strong association between obesity, especially excess intraabdominal (visceral) fat and:
o Coronary artery disease
o Type 2 diabetes
o Hypertension
o Types of Cancer
-Excessively low levels of fat is detrimental to health
-Monitor growth of children and adolescents
-Determine optimal body composition for health and performance in athletes
-Monitor training and/or diet effects on modifying body composition
-Track long term changes that occur with ageing malnutrition and disease

13

What is body composition?

-Body Composition: The body’s relative amounts of fat mass and fat free mass (bone, water, muscle, connective tissue and organ tissues, teeth)

14

What is fat mass and fat free mass?

-Fat Mass (FM): extractible lipids from adipose tissue and other tissues
-Fat-Free Mass (FFM): is composed of all the body’s non-fat tissue including bone, muscle, organs and connective tissue

15

What is lean body mass and % of body fat?

-Lean Body Mass (LBM): includes all FFM along with essential fat. Lean body mass is difficult to measure so the fat mass/fat-free mass model is most often used
-% Body Fat: Proportional amount of fat in the body based on the person’s total weight; includes both essential and storage fat

16

What is essential and non-essential fat?

-Essential Fat (3-7%) = Crucial for normal body functioning (consists of stored fat in major organs, muscles and central nervous system)
-Non-essential (storage) fat = adipose tissue

17

What is subcutaneous and visceral fat?

-Subcutaneous Fat
o Fat stored in the subcutaneous tissue
o Directly under the skin
-Visceral Fat
o Intra-abdominal fat
o Fat inside the abdominal cavity

18

What you use to assess body composition with field tests?

-Height to weight table
-Waist to hip ratio
-Skinfolds
-Body mass index
-Waist circumference

19

What you use to assess body composition with laboratory tests?

-DEXA
-MRI, CT

20

When measuring waist to hip ratio how do you use waist measurement?

-Waist measurement
o Smallest circumference of the waist between the lower costal (rib) boarder and the iliac crest
o If no obvious minimum waist is evident then this measure is taken at the midpoint between these two landmarks

21

When measuring waist to hip ratio how do you use hip measurement?

-Hip (Gluteal) measurement
o Greatest posterior protuberance of the buttocks with the feet of the subject together

22

How do you measure waist to hip ratio?

-Waist to Hip Ratio
o Waist (cm) / Hip (cm)
o Often used to distinguish type of obesity

23

Describe an android

-Android = Apple
o Central obesity
o Typically, males experience
o More visceral fat
o Increases risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome

24

Describe a gynoid

-Gynoid = Pear
o Peripheral obesity
o Less visceral fat
o Typically, in females
o Lower risk

25

Describe waist circumference

-Waist circumference is often used alone as an indicator of health risk because abdominal obesity is the issue
-Can be used alone or in combination with BMI (both preferable)
o Men = > 100 cm
o Women = > 90 cm
-Waist circumference is a valid measure of abdominal fat mass and disease risk in individuals with a BMI < 35
-If BMI > 35, waist circumference adds little to the absolute measure of risk provided by BMI.

26

Describe body mass index

-A population-based measure of obesity related disease risk
o BMI = Body Mass (kg) / Height 2 (m) = kgm-2
-A BMI > 30 kg/m-2 is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, CHD and mortality rate
-A BMI < 18.5 kg/m-2 is also associated with an increased risk of heart disease

27

What are the advantages of measuring body mass index?

o Calculation is simple, rapid and inexpensive
o Non gender specific  Practical indicator of obesity
o More accurate measure of total body fat compared to weight

28

What are the limitations of measuring body mass index?

o Doesn’t distinguish between Fat and LBM or bone structure
o Overestimates body fat in very muscular or very short (< 1.52 cm) people
o Does not reflect body fat distributions
o Can underestimate body fat in people who have lost muscle mass (e.g. elderly) or in patients with oedema (swelling)
o Misleading in children and elderly where muscle and bone to height relationship is changing
o Imprecise indication of % body fat

29

What are skin folds as a measurement test?

-The measurement of compressed subcutaneous adipose tissue and the thickness of a double fold of skin
-The rationale for skinfold measurements is based on the relationship between fat located in deposits directly beneath the skin and both internal fat and body density
-Widely used technique for estimating % body fat
-Practical, cheap and useful in the lab and field

30

What is the equation of body density for females?

o Body Density = 1.20953 – [0.08294 x (log10 Sum of Six Skinfolds)]
o Triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh, calf