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Describe the progression of dealing with a client

1. Informed consent and pre-screening
2. Training at low to moderate intensity
3. Assessment of fitness (based on goals of the client)
4. Training program (based on goals of the client)


What participant information should be collected and why should you get informed consent?

-Gathering of personal information and performing procedures with associated risk
o An Informed Consent Form and Participant information sheet should include:
-Explaining the purpose of the assessments
-Describing the procedures/responsibilities of the participant/client
o What they need to do – lay terms
-Outlining the risks/discomforts and benefits
-Outlining how the client/participant can ask questions
-Explaining how their data will be handled/stored/de-identified
-Explaining that the client can withdraw at any time


Why is pre-screening important?

-Vitally important
-Qualified to train healthy individuals
o Always remember scope of practice
o If unsure ask/consult


What are the components of physical fitness (health)?

-Cardiorespiratory Endurance
-Body Composition
-Muscular Strength
-Muscular Endurance


What are the components of physical fitness (skill)?

-Reaction Time


What are the purposes of fitness assessments?

-Collecting baseline data and comparing to age and sex specific normative data therefore educating the client on their health status
o Identify strengths and weaknesses
-To inform exercise prescription and ensure it is individualised to the client’s initial values and goals
-To evaluate an exercise programs effectiveness and allow long term monitoring


What are the types of laboratory based fitness tests?

o Allows for greater control of conditions (environment) and administration
o Enables better supervision
o One client at a time
o Availability of specialised equipment


What are the types of field based fitness tests?

o Sometimes allows greater validity
-Closer replication of real-life situations
-Research and results in the field are easily/more transferable to sports
o Harder to control


Describe muscular strength, power and endurance tests

Muscular Strength Tests
-Multi-Stage Tests
-1RM or Estimations of 1RM
Muscular Power Tests
-Vertical Jump
-Broad Jump
-1RM Power Clean
Muscular Endurance Tests
-Push Up Endurance Test


Describe cardiorespiratory endurance and agility tests

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Fitness Tests
-Beep Test
Agility Tests
-Illinois Test


Describe flexibility and body composition tests?

Flexibility Tests
-Sit and Reach Test
Body Composition Tests
-Skin Folds
-Girth Measurements


Why do you asses body composition?

-Strong association between obesity, especially excess intraabdominal (visceral) fat and:
o Coronary artery disease
o Type 2 diabetes
o Hypertension
o Types of Cancer
-Excessively low levels of fat is detrimental to health
-Monitor growth of children and adolescents
-Determine optimal body composition for health and performance in athletes
-Monitor training and/or diet effects on modifying body composition
-Track long term changes that occur with ageing malnutrition and disease


What is body composition?

-Body Composition: The body’s relative amounts of fat mass and fat free mass (bone, water, muscle, connective tissue and organ tissues, teeth)


What is fat mass and fat free mass?

-Fat Mass (FM): extractible lipids from adipose tissue and other tissues
-Fat-Free Mass (FFM): is composed of all the body’s non-fat tissue including bone, muscle, organs and connective tissue


What is lean body mass and % of body fat?

-Lean Body Mass (LBM): includes all FFM along with essential fat. Lean body mass is difficult to measure so the fat mass/fat-free mass model is most often used
-% Body Fat: Proportional amount of fat in the body based on the person’s total weight; includes both essential and storage fat


What is essential and non-essential fat?

-Essential Fat (3-7%) = Crucial for normal body functioning (consists of stored fat in major organs, muscles and central nervous system)
-Non-essential (storage) fat = adipose tissue


What is subcutaneous and visceral fat?

-Subcutaneous Fat
o Fat stored in the subcutaneous tissue
o Directly under the skin
-Visceral Fat
o Intra-abdominal fat
o Fat inside the abdominal cavity


What you use to assess body composition with field tests?

-Height to weight table
-Waist to hip ratio
-Body mass index
-Waist circumference


What you use to assess body composition with laboratory tests?



When measuring waist to hip ratio how do you use waist measurement?

-Waist measurement
o Smallest circumference of the waist between the lower costal (rib) boarder and the iliac crest
o If no obvious minimum waist is evident then this measure is taken at the midpoint between these two landmarks


When measuring waist to hip ratio how do you use hip measurement?

-Hip (Gluteal) measurement
o Greatest posterior protuberance of the buttocks with the feet of the subject together


How do you measure waist to hip ratio?

-Waist to Hip Ratio
o Waist (cm) / Hip (cm)
o Often used to distinguish type of obesity


Describe an android

-Android = Apple
o Central obesity
o Typically, males experience
o More visceral fat
o Increases risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome


Describe a gynoid

-Gynoid = Pear
o Peripheral obesity
o Less visceral fat
o Typically, in females
o Lower risk


Describe waist circumference

-Waist circumference is often used alone as an indicator of health risk because abdominal obesity is the issue
-Can be used alone or in combination with BMI (both preferable)
o Men = > 100 cm
o Women = > 90 cm
-Waist circumference is a valid measure of abdominal fat mass and disease risk in individuals with a BMI < 35
-If BMI > 35, waist circumference adds little to the absolute measure of risk provided by BMI.


Describe body mass index

-A population-based measure of obesity related disease risk
o BMI = Body Mass (kg) / Height 2 (m) = kgm-2
-A BMI > 30 kg/m-2 is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, CHD and mortality rate
-A BMI < 18.5 kg/m-2 is also associated with an increased risk of heart disease


What are the advantages of measuring body mass index?

o Calculation is simple, rapid and inexpensive
o Non gender specific  Practical indicator of obesity
o More accurate measure of total body fat compared to weight


What are the limitations of measuring body mass index?

o Doesn’t distinguish between Fat and LBM or bone structure
o Overestimates body fat in very muscular or very short (< 1.52 cm) people
o Does not reflect body fat distributions
o Can underestimate body fat in people who have lost muscle mass (e.g. elderly) or in patients with oedema (swelling)
o Misleading in children and elderly where muscle and bone to height relationship is changing
o Imprecise indication of % body fat


What are skin folds as a measurement test?

-The measurement of compressed subcutaneous adipose tissue and the thickness of a double fold of skin
-The rationale for skinfold measurements is based on the relationship between fat located in deposits directly beneath the skin and both internal fat and body density
-Widely used technique for estimating % body fat
-Practical, cheap and useful in the lab and field


What is the equation of body density for females?

o Body Density = 1.20953 – [0.08294 x (log10 Sum of Six Skinfolds)]
o Triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh, calf