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Flashcards in Week Eight Deck (44)
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What is resistance?

-Various forms of exercise training that require the muscles to overcome an external force/resistance in specified movement patterns


What is resistance training concerned with?

-Moving of muscle rather than the weight (i.e. you don’t have to lift the heaviest weight)
-The position of the body and the muscles being contracted
-Focusing on training the movement pattern


Why do resistance training?

Improve physical fitness:
-Muscular Strength
-Muscular Endurance
-Muscular Power
-Improve muscle function
-↑ bone mass (attenuate bone loss)
-↑ muscle cross sectional area (CSA)
-↓ body fat
-May relieve some musculoskeletal pathologies


What are the types of resistance training?

-Free weights
o Dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells
-Medicine Balls or sandbags
-Machine Weights
o Devices attached to weights and have adjustable seats and handles
-Resistance bands
-Suspension Equipment
o Uses gravity and body weight
-Body Weight


What are the advantages of free weights?

-Balance required which results in better coordination and greater muscle utilisation
-Contribution from stabilizer muscles during multi-joint exercises
-Greater variability
-Resemble real-life movements
-Full range of motion and relatively cheap


What are the disadvantages of free weights?

-Requires strength and skill to maintain balance and coordination
-Greater risk of injury
-Spotters are required
-Consistent Technique management


What are the advantages of machine weights?

-Balance not required which results in safer movements
-Proper technique is more possible due to uni-planer movement
-Easy to use
-Greater utilisation of isolated muscles
-Can train with heavier weights without assistance
o Useful for elderly populations or rehab


What are the disadvantages of machine weights?

-Limited exercises
-Isolated to one joint/muscle group
-Less representative of real-life movements
-Neglect smaller stabilising muscles
-Relatively expensive


What is muscular strength?

-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of muscle to exert force typically in a single effort


What is muscular endurance?

-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of a muscle to exert force repeatedly without fatigue


What is power?

-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability or rate at which one can perform work


What is the agonist of a muscle?

-The muscle most directly involved in bringing about a movement
o Also, can be referred to as the prime mover


What is the antagonist of a muscle?

-Muscle that opposes the agonist
o Relaxes to not impede the agonist or
o Stops the movement or slows it down


What is the synergist in a muscle role?

-Stabilisers the joint during movement
o Allows the action of the agonist
o e.g. Brachioradialis and Brachialis during a bicep curl (concentric phase)


What is the fixators in a muscle role?

-Muscles that stabilisers the origin of the agonist
o Allows effective function of the agonist
o e.g. rotator cuff muscles during a bicep curl (concentric phase)


What is an isometric static contraction?

-Muscular contraction against a resistance that doesn’t change the length of the muscle
-Tension generated by the muscle produces a torque which does not exceed resistance torque
o No change in distance between muscle attachments


What is an isometric dynamic contraction?

-Muscular contraction against a resistance that changes the length of the muscle


What is an concentric and eccentric dynamic contraction?

-Muscle torque exceeds resistive torque
o Decrease in distance between muscle attachments
-Muscle torque remains less than resistance torque
o Increase in distance between muscle attachments


What is an open chain exercise?

-Distal segment not fixed and allowed to move freely in space
o Commonly compound exercises
-Two or more joint movement


What is a closed chain exercise?

-Distal segment of extremity fixed to ground or supportive surface
o Commonly isolated exercises
-One joint movement


What is push and pull on exercises?

-Movement away from centre of the body during concentric contraction
-Movement towards the centre of body during the concentric contraction


What is a pronated, supinated and alternated grip?

-Pronated grip
o Palms down and knuckles up
“overhand grip”
-Supinated grip
o Palms up and knuckles down
“underhand grip”
-Alternated grip
o One hand in pronated grip and the other in supinated grip


What is a neutral and hook grip?

-Neutral grip
o Knuckles point laterally
-Hook grip
o Similar to the pronated grip except thumb is positioned under the index and middle fingers
-Strong grip for power exercises


What is a close and open grip?

-Close grip
o Thumb is wrapped on the opposite side as the fingers and goes on top of the fingers
-Open grip (false, thumbless, suicide)
o When the thumb does not wrap around the bar
o Same side of the bar as the fingers


What is the width grip and goal of it?

-Most exercises are shoulder width apart
o Balanced, even bar


What does a stable position of body and limbs enable?

-A stable position enables:
o Maintenance of proper body alignment during an exercise
o Allows appropriate stress on muscles and joints
-Both free weight and machine exercises require a stable position
o Consider feet positioning when standing
o Adjust pads and seats of machines


What does range of motion and speed maximise and what makes it easier to achieve rom?

-A full range of motion (ROM) maximizes the value of an exercise and improves flexibility
-Slow, controlled movements make it easier to achieve a complete ROM,
o Quick movements are appropriate for power exercises


What is the sticking point of breathing and describe exhale and inhale?

-The sticking point:
o Most strenuous part of a repetition
o Transition from the eccentric phase to the concentric phase – just after
-Exhale through the sticking point and
-Inhale during the less stressful phase of the repetition


What is Valsavla Manoeuvre?

-Experienced and well-trained-resistance athletes
-Performing structural exercises
-Aids in maintaining proper vertebral alignment and support
-Helps to establish the “flat-back” and erect upper torso position
-Expiring against a closed glottis


When should an athlete wear a weight belt?

-Typically wear a weight belt when:
o Stress is placed on the lower back and
o Sets that involve near-maximal or maximal loads