Flashcards in Week Eight Deck (44)
What is resistance?
-Various forms of exercise training that require the muscles to overcome an external force/resistance in specified movement patterns
What is resistance training concerned with?
-Moving of muscle rather than the weight (i.e. you don’t have to lift the heaviest weight)
-The position of the body and the muscles being contracted
-Focusing on training the movement pattern
Why do resistance training?
Improve physical fitness:
-Improve muscle function
-↑ bone mass (attenuate bone loss)
-↑ muscle cross sectional area (CSA)
-↓ body fat
-May relieve some musculoskeletal pathologies
What are the types of resistance training?
o Dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells
-Medicine Balls or sandbags
o Devices attached to weights and have adjustable seats and handles
o Uses gravity and body weight
What are the advantages of free weights?
-Balance required which results in better coordination and greater muscle utilisation
-Contribution from stabilizer muscles during multi-joint exercises
-Resemble real-life movements
-Full range of motion and relatively cheap
What are the disadvantages of free weights?
-Requires strength and skill to maintain balance and coordination
-Greater risk of injury
-Spotters are required
-Consistent Technique management
What are the advantages of machine weights?
-Balance not required which results in safer movements
-Proper technique is more possible due to uni-planer movement
-Easy to use
-Greater utilisation of isolated muscles
-Can train with heavier weights without assistance
o Useful for elderly populations or rehab
What are the disadvantages of machine weights?
-Isolated to one joint/muscle group
-Less representative of real-life movements
-Neglect smaller stabilising muscles
What is muscular strength?
-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of muscle to exert force typically in a single effort
What is muscular endurance?
-A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of a muscle to exert force repeatedly without fatigue
What is power?
-A skill related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability or rate at which one can perform work
What is the agonist of a muscle?
-The muscle most directly involved in bringing about a movement
o Also, can be referred to as the prime mover
What is the antagonist of a muscle?
-Muscle that opposes the agonist
o Relaxes to not impede the agonist or
o Stops the movement or slows it down
What is the synergist in a muscle role?
-Stabilisers the joint during movement
o Allows the action of the agonist
o e.g. Brachioradialis and Brachialis during a bicep curl (concentric phase)
What is the fixators in a muscle role?
-Muscles that stabilisers the origin of the agonist
o Allows effective function of the agonist
o e.g. rotator cuff muscles during a bicep curl (concentric phase)
What is an isometric static contraction?
-Muscular contraction against a resistance that doesn’t change the length of the muscle
-Tension generated by the muscle produces a torque which does not exceed resistance torque
o No change in distance between muscle attachments
What is an isometric dynamic contraction?
-Muscular contraction against a resistance that changes the length of the muscle
What is an concentric and eccentric dynamic contraction?
-Muscle torque exceeds resistive torque
o Decrease in distance between muscle attachments
-Muscle torque remains less than resistance torque
o Increase in distance between muscle attachments
What is an open chain exercise?
-Distal segment not fixed and allowed to move freely in space
o Commonly compound exercises
-Two or more joint movement
What is a closed chain exercise?
-Distal segment of extremity fixed to ground or supportive surface
o Commonly isolated exercises
-One joint movement
What is push and pull on exercises?
-Movement away from centre of the body during concentric contraction
-Movement towards the centre of body during the concentric contraction
What is a pronated, supinated and alternated grip?
o Palms down and knuckles up
o Palms up and knuckles down
o One hand in pronated grip and the other in supinated grip
What is a neutral and hook grip?
o Knuckles point laterally
o Similar to the pronated grip except thumb is positioned under the index and middle fingers
-Strong grip for power exercises
What is a close and open grip?
o Thumb is wrapped on the opposite side as the fingers and goes on top of the fingers
-Open grip (false, thumbless, suicide)
o When the thumb does not wrap around the bar
o Same side of the bar as the fingers
What is the width grip and goal of it?
-Most exercises are shoulder width apart
o Balanced, even bar
What does a stable position of body and limbs enable?
-A stable position enables:
o Maintenance of proper body alignment during an exercise
o Allows appropriate stress on muscles and joints
-Both free weight and machine exercises require a stable position
o Consider feet positioning when standing
o Adjust pads and seats of machines
What does range of motion and speed maximise and what makes it easier to achieve rom?
-A full range of motion (ROM) maximizes the value of an exercise and improves flexibility
-Slow, controlled movements make it easier to achieve a complete ROM,
o Quick movements are appropriate for power exercises
What is the sticking point of breathing and describe exhale and inhale?
-The sticking point:
o Most strenuous part of a repetition
o Transition from the eccentric phase to the concentric phase – just after
-Exhale through the sticking point and
-Inhale during the less stressful phase of the repetition
What is Valsavla Manoeuvre?
-Experienced and well-trained-resistance athletes
-Performing structural exercises
-Aids in maintaining proper vertebral alignment and support
-Helps to establish the “flat-back” and erect upper torso position
-Expiring against a closed glottis