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Flashcards in Written Mode - General Deck (16):

What do you first need to establish about the text?

(Also could say the opinions of the piece/participants)


What to comment about on Discourse Structure

What features of the structure are noteworthy?
Is the style the same throughout the text?
What tone is used to address the audience?
Any speech-like features present?


What are speech-like features

Features in writing which would normally occur in spoken mode rather than written mode. This could be things like slang, more informal language, abbreviations etc.


What to comment about on Lexis

formality - latinate v germanic?
polysyllabic or monosyllabic lexis?
subject specific jargon?


What to look for in Semantics

-figurative language
-puns (play on words or double meanings)


What is a synecdoche

a figure of speech in which a part represents the whole,in e.g. the expression "hired hands" for workmen


What is a metonymy (2)

-the substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant (such as "crown" for "royalty").
- also the rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it, as in describing someone's clothing to characterise the individual.


What to comment on for Rhetorics

-rhetorical questions
-antithesis (reinforced by syntactic parallelism)


What are litotes

an understatement for rhetorical effect, usually achieved by using negation with a term in place of using an antonym of that term,
as in "She was not a little upset" for "She was extremely upset."


What is antithesis

are person or thing which is the complete opposite for something else (juxtaposition - however this is when opposing things are placed right next to one another)


What to comment about on Grammar

-use of pronouns
-sentence functions (4)
-tense past/present
-voice active/passive
-sentence structure (3)
-phrase types noun, verb, adjective
-syntax: any odd word order, odd arrangements of clauses
-syntactic parallelism


What is syntactic parallelism

Parallelism (repetition) of a similar sentence structure and word order. This is usually repeated quite close to each other so that it is more obviously done.


What to comment on about Phonology



What is assonance

When the vowel sounds in the middle of two or more words are similar


What is consonance

The repetition of consonants or of a consonant pattern, especially at the ends of words, as in blank and think or strong and string.


What to comment on about Pragmatics

any differences between surface sentence meaning and underlying meaning?
e.g. a phrase like “an ideal renovation opportunity” in an estate agent’s description of a property may “mean” falling down – the phrase is coded – its function is to tell us without negative connotations, so that potential buyers could feel good about considering it.