1- The Chemical Nature of the Cell ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1- The Chemical Nature of the Cell ✅ Deck (122)
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1

Amino acid

The monomer of proteins
There are 20 different types

2

Amphipathic

A molecule containing both hypertonic and hypotonic parts.
Commonly found in proteins

3

Anion

A atom that has been oxidised and there for has a positive charge

4

Atom

The smallest function unit of molecules

5

Autoradiography

A image produced by radios of a substance on to another substance

6

Autotroph

An organism that synthesises its own food

7

Beta pleated sheet

A secondary structure of a protein that is a corrugated line of a polypeptide

8

Bioinformatics

The science of collecting an analysing complex biological data

9

Biological functionality

When a shape of a particular molecule is such that it can Carr out its biological function

10

Biomolecules

The molecules that comprise all living organisms.
There are four: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

11

Buffer

A solution of a weak acid or base and its salt threat tends to keep its pH constant

12

Carbohydrate

A Biomolecule that is a ring of carbons with sub structures.
It follows the general ratio of C1H2O1 (C6H12O6)

13

Cation

An atom that has been reduced and therefore has a negative charge

14

Cell

The smallest functioning unit of a living being

15

Chemical bonds

The electrostatic attraction that exists between two or more atoms.

16

Chemotroph

An organism that obtains its energy front he oxidation of chemicals

17

Cholesterol

A lipid molecule that resides in the phospholipid bilayer and has the purpose of increasing rigidity and flexibility of the membrane

18

Compounds

Combinations of different elements and atoms with chemical bonds

19

Condensation polymerisation

The process of Biomolecules to join and release a water molecule in the process.
Lipids only do this when combining fatty acids with glycerol

20

Conformation

The shape of a molecule that is determined by the three dimensional arrangement of its atoms and bonds; a molecule of water is eliminated when to monomers are bonded together

21

Covalent bonds

Electrochemical attraction that exists between to elements/atoms that share electrons.

22

Alpha helix

The secondary structure of the protein that is a coiling feature

23

Denature

A process of proteins when put under harsh conditions they will change their shape and loose their purpose.

The conditions can be high temp or change of pH

24

Disaccharide

A carbohydrate with two sugars attached to it

25

Disulfide bridges

A covalent bond containing two sulfur atoms that cross link.

It is Aprt of tertiary structures of proteins

26

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid
The coding molecule that forms in a double helix structure of nucleotides.

It is composed of the four nitrogenous bases ATCG (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine)

27

Electrolytes

Some sort of substance containing ions that can carry a charge

28

Electron

The subunit of the atom that orbits the nucleus and is the main component in bonding

29

Element

An atom with a certain amount to protons that defines it with certain chemical properties

30

Enzyme

A protein that has the purpose of facilitating a chemical reaction of some sort