1- The Chemical Nature of the Cell ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1- The Chemical Nature of the Cell ✅ Deck (122):
1

Amino acid

The monomer of proteins
There are 20 different types

2

Amphipathic

A molecule containing both hypertonic and hypotonic parts.
Commonly found in proteins

3

Anion

A atom that has been oxidised and there for has a positive charge

4

Atom

The smallest function unit of molecules

5

Autoradiography

A image produced by radios of a substance on to another substance

6

Autotroph

An organism that synthesises its own food

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Beta pleated sheet

A secondary structure of a protein that is a corrugated line of a polypeptide

8

Bioinformatics

The science of collecting an analysing complex biological data

9

Biological functionality

When a shape of a particular molecule is such that it can Carr out its biological function

10

Biomolecules

The molecules that comprise all living organisms.
There are four: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

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Buffer

A solution of a weak acid or base and its salt threat tends to keep its pH constant

12

Carbohydrate

A Biomolecule that is a ring of carbons with sub structures.
It follows the general ratio of C1H2O1 (C6H12O6)

13

Cation

An atom that has been reduced and therefore has a negative charge

14

Cell

The smallest functioning unit of a living being

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Chemical bonds

The electrostatic attraction that exists between two or more atoms.

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Chemotroph

An organism that obtains its energy front he oxidation of chemicals

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Cholesterol

A lipid molecule that resides in the phospholipid bilayer and has the purpose of increasing rigidity and flexibility of the membrane

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Compounds

Combinations of different elements and atoms with chemical bonds

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Condensation polymerisation

The process of Biomolecules to join and release a water molecule in the process.
Lipids only do this when combining fatty acids with glycerol

20

Conformation

The shape of a molecule that is determined by the three dimensional arrangement of its atoms and bonds; a molecule of water is eliminated when to monomers are bonded together

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Covalent bonds

Electrochemical attraction that exists between to elements/atoms that share electrons.

22

Alpha helix

The secondary structure of the protein that is a coiling feature

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Denature

A process of proteins when put under harsh conditions they will change their shape and loose their purpose.

The conditions can be high temp or change of pH

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Disaccharide

A carbohydrate with two sugars attached to it

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Disulfide bridges

A covalent bond containing two sulfur atoms that cross link.

It is Aprt of tertiary structures of proteins

26

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid
The coding molecule that forms in a double helix structure of nucleotides.

It is composed of the four nitrogenous bases ATCG (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine)

27

Electrolytes

Some sort of substance containing ions that can carry a charge

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Electron

The subunit of the atom that orbits the nucleus and is the main component in bonding

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Element

An atom with a certain amount to protons that defines it with certain chemical properties

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Enzyme

A protein that has the purpose of facilitating a chemical reaction of some sort

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Formulae

A short hand way of describing the atoms that make up a chemical substance

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Functional groups

Special groups of atoms that are often attached to hydrocarbon molecules and confer particular chemical chemical characteristics

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Genes

A series of DNA nucleotides that begin with a met and ends with a stop. They code for a specific proteins and consequently a characteristic

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Genome

The total DNA of the haploid set of chromosomes in an organism

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Genomics

The study of the genome.

How genes interact with each other and the environment

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Glycolipid

The combination of a carbohydrate and a protein

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Glycoproteins

Combination of a carbohydrate and a protein

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Heterotrophs

Organisms that must eat to gain energy

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Hydrocarbons

Molecules composed of hydrogen, and carbon.

Some of them also contain access elements such as O, S, P, and others

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Hydrogen bond

A bond that exist between two molecules with polar charges, generally between Hydrogen and Oxygen but can also exist between H and N, or F

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Hydrophilic

Water loving

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Hydrophobic

Water hating

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Intermolecular bonds

Bonds that exist between separate molecules

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IntraMolecular bonds

Bonds that exist within molecules

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Ion

The charged from of an element

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Ionic bond,

A bond existing between a metal and nonmetal that is a paring of two ions

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Ionic compounds

Compounds between ions (cation and anions) that creates a lattice

48

Isotopes

Forms of a element with different amounts of neutrons, that changes their weight

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Lipids

A biomolecule that consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycogen

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Liposome

A spherical vesicle with a lipid membrane

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Macromolecules

Large molecules

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Molecular compounds

Combinations of different elements to create a molecule

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Monomer

The smallest unit of a biomolecule

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Monosaccharide

The monomer of carbohydrates that is a 5 carbon ring of sugar

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Neutron

A subunit of the atom that has no charge and exists in the nucleus

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Non-polar

An element that has no slight charge on any atoms

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Nucleic acids

A biomolecule that is comprised of nucleotides.

There are two types DNA & RNA

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Nucleotides

The monomer of nucleic acids that has five alternate forms that change depending on the nitrogenous base (ATUGC)

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Orbitals

The invisible rings that electrons are on, they surround an atom

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Organic chemistry

A branch of chemical that looks at the biomolecules

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Organic compound

Compounds that contain a carbon

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Peptide bond

A bond between amino acids that create the polypeptide/peptide chain

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pH

The scale of acidity and alkalinity that is meaured by density of [H3O+]

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Polar

A molecule that has a slight change on opposite ends of its self

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Polymerisation

The process of monomers being bonded together

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Polymers

Molecules compose of many subunits

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Polypeptide

A unstructured protein composed of amino acids

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Polysaccharides

The polymer from of carbohydrates composed of many, perhaps repeating units of sugars

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Proteins

The biomolecule composed of amnio acids that does literally everything.

70

Proteome

The structure and properties of all the proteins produced by a organisms genetic code

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Proteomics

The study of proteomes

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Proton

The subunit of the atom that has a positive change and exists with in the nucleus

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Radiation

Particles or photons emitted from the nucleus of unstable atoms

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid
A type of nucleic acid that is used for DNA code transport

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Salts

Any ionic bonding

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Saturated

A from of a lipid with no double bonds

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Steroids

Type of lipids that boost activity

Testosterone and oestrogen

78

Structural formulae

A two dimensional representation of a chemical

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Symbiotic

A interaction or relationship between two or more organisms

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Template

A molecule that serves as a pattern for the generation of another molecule
E.g DNA->RNA

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Tracers

Radioactively labeled molecules whose path can be followed within a reaction or an organism

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Triglyceride

A simple neutral lipid formed by linking the alcohol glycerol with three fatty acids; these lipids are stored in special storage cells in the adipose tissue of animals

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Unsaturated

A term used to describe hydrocarbons when one or more double or triple bonds exist between the carbon atoms within the molecule

84

Valence electrons

The electrons that exist on the outer most shell of an atom.

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What are the four biomacromolecules

Lipids
Carbohydrates
Nucleic acids
Proteins

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What are the monomers of the biomacromolecules?

Lipids- Fatty acids and glycerol
Carbohydrates-monosaccharides
Nucleic acids- nucleotides
Proteins- amino acids

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What are the polymers of the biomacromolecules?

Carbohydrates-disaccharides/polysaccharides
Nucleic acids- DNA&RNA
Proteins- polypeptide

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What is the combined from of a lipid called?

Triglyceride

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What are the purposes that lipids can have in a organism?

Energy store
Food store
Structural components (phospholipids)

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What are the purposes that carbohydrates can have in a organism?

Energy source
Structure
Energy store
Cell recognition

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What are the purposes that proteins can have in a organism?

Structural
Organic catalyst
Transport
Defence
Recognition
Messaging
Movement

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What elements are in each of the biomacromolecules

Carbohydates-CHO
lipids-CHO
Nucleic acids-CHOPN
Proteins-CHOPN

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In proteins how many levels of structure are there

4

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What is the primary structure of proteins

The polypeptide chain

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What is the secondary structure of proteins

The coils and bends in the polypeptide chain know as Alpha Helixes and Beta pleated sheets, respectively.

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What is the tertiary structure of proteins

This involves how the proteins reacts to its own polarity and charges. The bonds formed are Ionic, Hydrogen and Disulfide bridges

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What is the quaternary structure of proteins

The formation of two or more proteins put together

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What are the characteristics of living things

Movement, growth, able to reproduce, detect and respond to changes, take in matter and process it to provide energy, remove wastes

99

Cell theory

All living things are made of cell or are a product of a cell
All cells come from pre-existing cells
The cell is the most basic unit of life

100

Electrolytes

Dissolved ions that allow electricity to flow

101

Inorganic compound

A molecule not containing Carbon excluding CO2

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Condensation

A reaction in which a small molecule or water is produced

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Amylose

A long chain of glucose that is used with another molecule to make starch

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Cellulose

A series of glucose chains connected by covalent and hydrogen bonds

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Glucose

The most well known carbohydrate with the formula C6H12O6

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Glycogen

A molecule of glucose that branches out.

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Hexose sugar

A carbohydrate composed of 6 Carbons

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Pentose sugar

A carbohydrate composed of 5 carbons

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Primary protein

Polypeptide

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Secondary protein structure

3D bonding such as Alpha Helixes, Beta pleated sheets, and random loops

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Tertiary protein structure

3D such as Disulfide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds

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Prion proteins

Proteins that switch from their secondary structure form alpha Helixes to beta pleated sheets or vies versa, in a chain reaction

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Codon

A triplet of nucleotide bases that code for an amino acid

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Complementary base Pair

The rule that states that C must bond to G and A to T unless it is RNA in which A bonds to U

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Double helix

The double spiral of the phosphate and deoxyribose back bone with the nucleotides

116

Nitrogenous base

A molecule of a nucleic acids that crates a code on

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Transcription

The process involving the in zipping of the double helix to allow replication of the code (mRNA)

118

Translation

The joining of amino acids to create a peptide strand as a result of tRNA and mRNA

119

Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional

120

Fatty acid

A long chain of hydrocarbon molecules with a carboxyl group at one end that when condensing forms a ester

121

Glycerol

A three carbon chain, with three hydroxyl groups, it forms the back bone of a lipid

122

Phospholipid

A lipid that has had a fatty acid replaced with an phosphate