Flashcards in 1- The Chemical Nature of the Cell ✅ Deck (122):
The monomer of proteins
There are 20 different types
A molecule containing both hypertonic and hypotonic parts.
Commonly found in proteins
A atom that has been oxidised and there for has a positive charge
The smallest function unit of molecules
A image produced by radios of a substance on to another substance
An organism that synthesises its own food
Beta pleated sheet
A secondary structure of a protein that is a corrugated line of a polypeptide
The science of collecting an analysing complex biological data
When a shape of a particular molecule is such that it can Carr out its biological function
The molecules that comprise all living organisms.
There are four: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
A solution of a weak acid or base and its salt threat tends to keep its pH constant
A Biomolecule that is a ring of carbons with sub structures.
It follows the general ratio of C1H2O1 (C6H12O6)
An atom that has been reduced and therefore has a negative charge
The smallest functioning unit of a living being
The electrostatic attraction that exists between two or more atoms.
An organism that obtains its energy front he oxidation of chemicals
A lipid molecule that resides in the phospholipid bilayer and has the purpose of increasing rigidity and flexibility of the membrane
Combinations of different elements and atoms with chemical bonds
The process of Biomolecules to join and release a water molecule in the process.
Lipids only do this when combining fatty acids with glycerol
The shape of a molecule that is determined by the three dimensional arrangement of its atoms and bonds; a molecule of water is eliminated when to monomers are bonded together
Electrochemical attraction that exists between to elements/atoms that share electrons.
The secondary structure of the protein that is a coiling feature
A process of proteins when put under harsh conditions they will change their shape and loose their purpose.
The conditions can be high temp or change of pH
A carbohydrate with two sugars attached to it
A covalent bond containing two sulfur atoms that cross link.
It is Aprt of tertiary structures of proteins
The coding molecule that forms in a double helix structure of nucleotides.
It is composed of the four nitrogenous bases ATCG (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine)
Some sort of substance containing ions that can carry a charge
The subunit of the atom that orbits the nucleus and is the main component in bonding
An atom with a certain amount to protons that defines it with certain chemical properties
A protein that has the purpose of facilitating a chemical reaction of some sort
A short hand way of describing the atoms that make up a chemical substance
Special groups of atoms that are often attached to hydrocarbon molecules and confer particular chemical chemical characteristics
A series of DNA nucleotides that begin with a met and ends with a stop. They code for a specific proteins and consequently a characteristic
The total DNA of the haploid set of chromosomes in an organism
The study of the genome.
How genes interact with each other and the environment
The combination of a carbohydrate and a protein
Combination of a carbohydrate and a protein
Organisms that must eat to gain energy
Molecules composed of hydrogen, and carbon.
Some of them also contain access elements such as O, S, P, and others
A bond that exist between two molecules with polar charges, generally between Hydrogen and Oxygen but can also exist between H and N, or F
Bonds that exist between separate molecules
Bonds that exist within molecules
The charged from of an element
A bond existing between a metal and nonmetal that is a paring of two ions
Compounds between ions (cation and anions) that creates a lattice
Forms of a element with different amounts of neutrons, that changes their weight
A biomolecule that consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycogen
A spherical vesicle with a lipid membrane
Combinations of different elements to create a molecule
The smallest unit of a biomolecule
The monomer of carbohydrates that is a 5 carbon ring of sugar
A subunit of the atom that has no charge and exists in the nucleus
An element that has no slight charge on any atoms
A biomolecule that is comprised of nucleotides.
There are two types DNA & RNA
The monomer of nucleic acids that has five alternate forms that change depending on the nitrogenous base (ATUGC)
The invisible rings that electrons are on, they surround an atom
A branch of chemical that looks at the biomolecules
Compounds that contain a carbon
A bond between amino acids that create the polypeptide/peptide chain
The scale of acidity and alkalinity that is meaured by density of [H3O+]
A molecule that has a slight change on opposite ends of its self
The process of monomers being bonded together
Molecules compose of many subunits
A unstructured protein composed of amino acids
The polymer from of carbohydrates composed of many, perhaps repeating units of sugars
The biomolecule composed of amnio acids that does literally everything.
The structure and properties of all the proteins produced by a organisms genetic code
The study of proteomes
The subunit of the atom that has a positive change and exists with in the nucleus
Particles or photons emitted from the nucleus of unstable atoms
A type of nucleic acid that is used for DNA code transport
Any ionic bonding
A from of a lipid with no double bonds
Type of lipids that boost activity
Testosterone and oestrogen
A two dimensional representation of a chemical
A interaction or relationship between two or more organisms
A molecule that serves as a pattern for the generation of another molecule
Radioactively labeled molecules whose path can be followed within a reaction or an organism
A simple neutral lipid formed by linking the alcohol glycerol with three fatty acids; these lipids are stored in special storage cells in the adipose tissue of animals
A term used to describe hydrocarbons when one or more double or triple bonds exist between the carbon atoms within the molecule
The electrons that exist on the outer most shell of an atom.
What are the four biomacromolecules
What are the monomers of the biomacromolecules?
Lipids- Fatty acids and glycerol
Nucleic acids- nucleotides
Proteins- amino acids
What are the polymers of the biomacromolecules?
Nucleic acids- DNA&RNA
What is the combined from of a lipid called?
What are the purposes that lipids can have in a organism?
Structural components (phospholipids)
What are the purposes that carbohydrates can have in a organism?
What are the purposes that proteins can have in a organism?
What elements are in each of the biomacromolecules
In proteins how many levels of structure are there
What is the primary structure of proteins
The polypeptide chain
What is the secondary structure of proteins
The coils and bends in the polypeptide chain know as Alpha Helixes and Beta pleated sheets, respectively.
What is the tertiary structure of proteins
This involves how the proteins reacts to its own polarity and charges. The bonds formed are Ionic, Hydrogen and Disulfide bridges
What is the quaternary structure of proteins
The formation of two or more proteins put together
What are the characteristics of living things
Movement, growth, able to reproduce, detect and respond to changes, take in matter and process it to provide energy, remove wastes
All living things are made of cell or are a product of a cell
All cells come from pre-existing cells
The cell is the most basic unit of life
Dissolved ions that allow electricity to flow
A molecule not containing Carbon excluding CO2
A reaction in which a small molecule or water is produced
A long chain of glucose that is used with another molecule to make starch
A series of glucose chains connected by covalent and hydrogen bonds
The most well known carbohydrate with the formula C6H12O6
A molecule of glucose that branches out.
A carbohydrate composed of 6 Carbons
A carbohydrate composed of 5 carbons
Secondary protein structure
3D bonding such as Alpha Helixes, Beta pleated sheets, and random loops
Tertiary protein structure
3D such as Disulfide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds
Proteins that switch from their secondary structure form alpha Helixes to beta pleated sheets or vies versa, in a chain reaction
A triplet of nucleotide bases that code for an amino acid
Complementary base Pair
The rule that states that C must bond to G and A to T unless it is RNA in which A bonds to U
The double spiral of the phosphate and deoxyribose back bone with the nucleotides
A molecule of a nucleic acids that crates a code on
The process involving the in zipping of the double helix to allow replication of the code (mRNA)
The joining of amino acids to create a peptide strand as a result of tRNA and mRNA
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional
A long chain of hydrocarbon molecules with a carboxyl group at one end that when condensing forms a ester
A three carbon chain, with three hydroxyl groups, it forms the back bone of a lipid