8- DNA: The Universal Molecule Of Life ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8- DNA: The Universal Molecule Of Life ✅ Deck (59):
1

Anticodon

A triplet of nucleotides complementary to the codon sequence.

2

Codon

The sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.

3

Exons

Parts of a pre mRNA that stay in the sequence when splicing occurs.

4

Gene expression

Unknown

5

Introns

A nucleotide sequence of a gene that does not code for a gene product or control sequence.

6

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

A category of RNA molecules that transcribes the genetic information from the DNA in nucleus.

7

Methylated cap

A chemical that is attached to mRNA just before splicing that is attached to the 5' end.

8

Poly-A-tail

100-200 adenine nucleotides are added to the 3’ end before splicing.

9

Peptide bond

A chemical bond that exists between an amino acid and a polypeptide chain.
NH2 bonds with COOH to make NHOOC or COONH (depending on the orientation

10

Primary RNA (pre-mRNA)

Messenger RNA before the maturation process where it leaves the nucleus.

11

rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

RNA found in the ribosome

12

RNA Polymerase

An enzyme involved with adding RN nucleotides together

13

Structural gene

A gene that is expressed and codes for a particular protein

14

Template strand

He strand of the DNA molecule that is transcribed during RNA synthesis and therefore used in gene expression

15

Transcription

The synthesis of mRNA molecule from the template strand of DNA in the nucleus

16

Transfer RNA (tRNA

A molecule found in the cytoplasm that is about 75-80 nucleotides long and is involved in the synthesis of a polypeptide by the ribosomes.

17

Translation

The process of protein synthesis that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.

18

Gene regulation

Unknown

19

Induction

The transcription of a gene enhanced by the presence of a substance that resembles the substrate of the enzyme.

20

Operator gene

A non-coding sequence of DNA of prokaryotic organisms that is found before a coding region and acts as a site of gene regulation, stopping the transcription of the gene by binding to a repressor protein.

21

Operon

A set of coding and non-coding regions of DNA that work together to work as a functional unit of gene expression

22

Promoter

A region of DNA, approximately 200-300 base pairs upstream from the region of DNA to be transcribed, that allows the enzyme RNA polymerase to bind with it to initiate the transcription process

23

Regulator gene

A regulatory gene that's codes for the production of a repressor protein

24

Repressor protein

A protein produced by a repressor gene that binds to an operator DNA site and inhibits the transcription of nearly structural genes abs consequentially, their expression.

25

Anueploidy

Have more or less chromosomes than the parental cell

26

Deletion

The process of removal of one or more nucleotide bases from DNA or of a section of a DNA molecule from a chromosome.

27

Duplication

A mutation that involves copying a part of a chromosome.

28

Frameshift

A type of mutation caused by that deletion of addition of a single nucleotide in the codon that results in a change in the reading frame of the codons.

29

Germline mutation

A gene or chromosome mutation occurring in the gamete.

30

Inversion

A mutation involving a section of DNA that has been cut from a chromosome, reversed then reinserted.

31

Mutagenic agent

An environmental influence that is able to cause in one or more nucleotide bases of the genetic material (DNA or RNA)

32

Non-disjunction

A feature in the cellular process of either mitosis or meiosis that results in cells that have an incorrect number of chromosomes.

33

Point mutation

A mutation in the nucleotide sequence of a gene in which only one base is altered, either by being substituted for another nucleotide or by being deleted.

34

Polyploidy

The possession of one or more complete extra sets of chromosomes in each cell.

35

Translocation

Unknown

36

Trisomy

The presence of an extra chromosomes of one type in a cell making a total of three chromosomes.

37

Anticodon

A sequence of three nucleotides on a molecule of tRNA that is complementary to the base sequence on a codon of mRNA.

38

Autosomal trisomy

Addition of a non-sex chromosome

39

Coding region of DNA

A small part of a DNA strand used as a template for synthesis of an mRNA strand; also known as a gene

40

Codon

A group of three nucleotides (a triplet) of DNA or RNA

41

Enhancers

Regions found in eukaryotic DNA that act as binding sites for some activator proteins

42

Exon

A nucleotide sequence of a gene that codes for an amino acid sequence or a control sequence

43

Genetic code

The triplets of bases found among a molecule of DNA that code for the amino acid sequence of polypeptides

44

Kalata B1 protein

A type of protein with potent insecticidal activity.

45

Methylation

The attachment of a methyl group to nucleotides

46

Mutagen

An agent, chemical or physical, that increases the mutation rate above spontaneous rate.

47

Mutation rate

The probability rate a spontaneous mutation will occur in on cellular division

48

Neutral point mutation

Th substituted nucleotide base results in a codon that codes for the same amino acid as the original base

49

Non-template strand

A strand that is complementary to the template strand; it doesn't not guide the synthesis of complementary polynucleotides

50

Peptide bonds

A chemical bond that exists between amino acids in a polypeptide chain

51

Point mutation

A mutation in the genetic sequence of nucleotides in a gene in which only one base is altered, either by being substituted for another nucleotide or by bing deleted.

52

Polypeptide chain

A group of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

53

Polyribosome

Many ribosomes forming chains

54

Pre mRNA

Single stranded RNA molecule that is the precursor to mRNA. It has not yet gone through maturation/splicing that removes the introns.

55

RNA polymerase

An enzyme involved with adding RNA nucleotides together

56

Somatic mutation

A mutation that occurs in a somatic cell (body cell)

57

Termination signal

A signal that stops the synthesis of a polypeptide.

58

Tetraploid

Four haploid sets of chromosomes in each cell.

59

Triploid

Three haploid sets of chromosomes in each cell