Flashcards in 2- Dynamic Cells: Molecules On The Move ✅ Deck (65):
The passage of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
The process of cell regulated cell death, mainly done by lack of signalling to a cell.
Related to cancer in that when apoptosis fails and cells rapidly divide
Proteins that transport so lutes across the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane by a change in shape of the protein.
Proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane that, when open allow the movement of solutes into and out of the cell
The substance containing DNA, proteins, and some RNA, of which chromosomes are made
A structure containing proteins and a single DNA molecule that carries genetic information
The change in concentration of a substance over distance or across a membrane
The network of microtubules and microfilaments found in eukaryotic cells
A quality of membranes to allow only certain kinds of particle through
The process of net passive movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
The process where by particles enter an animal cell intact without passing through the structure of the plasma membrane
The system of membrane lined cavities in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that is the site of protein synthesis
An organism that consists of cells containing distinct organelles including a nucleus, and other membrane bound organelles
A process by which substances are removed from the cell
Extra cellular matrix
The material between the cells of multicellular organisms
The process whereby a substance is transported across the plasma membrane of a cell, using transport proteins that are specific to each solute transported but without the expenditure of energy
Fluid mosaic model
A membrane bound organelle of a cell comprising of stacks of four to ten disk shaped cisternae.
A solution that is lower in solute compared to another
A solution that is higher in solute compared to another
A group of protein filaments that make up one component of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, they form rope like bundles that provide tensile strength for the cell.
A solution with solute concentration equal to another solute
A membrane bound vesicle of an animal cell that contains digestive & decomposing enzymes
A thread like structure made of protein that is involved in various from of cellular movements
Small tubules made up of protein tubulin; they are a major component in the cytoskeleton, that is maintaining cell shape
Describes agents(cells organisms, substances) that are not recognised by the immune system as being part of the organism
The membrane of phospholipids around the nucleus of the cell
A dark staining sub-organelle found within the nucleus of the cells
An organelle bound by a double membrane found within eukaryotic cells
Describes the structures within a cell that carry out specific functions
The passive process of diffusion of water across a semi permible membrane
The process of endocytosis solid molecules are transported into the cell
A lipid molecule with one of the fatty acids replaces with a phosphate group
The process of endocytosis by which liquid or gas molecules are brought into the cell
Plasma membrane (aka cell membrane)
The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and contains the cytoplasm, and keeps it from the extracellular fluid
An occurrence of a plant cell to reduce its internal size due to lack of water
Describes a cell that does not contain any membrane bound organelles including a nucleus
The movement of proteins produced by ribosomes attached to the Endoplasmic reticulum, through a series of compartments and vesicles, via the Golgi body, to secretory vesicles for export by Exocytosis
Organelles comprised of ribosomal RNA and protein that facilitate the process of protein synthesis
Describes a boundary, such as the plasma membrane, that allows only some substances to pass through it while keeping other substances out
Describes agents(cells organisms, substances) that are recognised by the immune system as being part of the organism
A molecule or chemical that is submerged within a solvent
The liquid substance in which the solute is dissolved in
An opening located on the underside epidermis of plant leaves that's is bounded by two guard cells
Describes a state of a plant cell in which the vacuole is filled, and the cell wall is convex due to this
The force exerted by the vacuole when at a high capacity
The organelles found mainly in plants that house the water and other wastes of the cell within the centre of the cell.
A process where by glucose is broken down in a oxygen deprived environment, into pyruvate (in humans) then lactic acid, (in yeast) then ethanol.
A structure found with in cells that performs a specialised metabolic function
C27H45OH, it is a molecule that sits in the cell membrane and increases rigidity and flexiblity
A complex molecule composed of protein connected to a carbohydrate.
Water loving, that is it is water soluble compound
Water hating, that is it is insoluble in water
A protein lodged in the cell membrane that detects hormones and other chemicals and cause the cascade effect of secondary messengers in signal transduction
Proteins imbedded in the cell membrane that detect self and non self cells
A protein imbedded in the cell membrane that allows access in or out of the cell
A process by which an animal cell left in a hypertonic solution shrinks and shrivels as it looses its water.
A point at which two solutions have equal net movement between each other
A process by which a plant when losing water droops
A process by which a cell membrane is breached.
In osmosis this is done when an animal cell left in a hypotonic solution bulges and bursts as it gains its water.
The processes by which substances are moved across a semipermeable membrane which out the usage of energy
Adenosine tri-phosphate, a chemical with high energy bonds that when dissociation occurs large amounts of energy are given off
One of the flattened vesicles comprising the Golgi body on part of the rough Endoplasmic reticulum
A process by which substances ar transported out of the cell by a vesicle