2- Dynamic Cells: Molecules On The Move ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2- Dynamic Cells: Molecules On The Move ✅ Deck (65):
1

Active transport

The passage of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient

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Apoptosis

The process of cell regulated cell death, mainly done by lack of signalling to a cell.
Related to cancer in that when apoptosis fails and cells rapidly divide

3

Carrier proteins

Proteins that transport so lutes across the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane by a change in shape of the protein.

4

Channel proteins

Proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane that, when open allow the movement of solutes into and out of the cell

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Chromatin

The substance containing DNA, proteins, and some RNA, of which chromosomes are made

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Chromosome

A structure containing proteins and a single DNA molecule that carries genetic information

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Concentration gradient

The change in concentration of a substance over distance or across a membrane

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Cytoskeleton

The network of microtubules and microfilaments found in eukaryotic cells

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Differentially/semi/partially permeable

A quality of membranes to allow only certain kinds of particle through

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Diffusion

The process of net passive movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

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Endocytosis

The process where by particles enter an animal cell intact without passing through the structure of the plasma membrane

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The system of membrane lined cavities in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that is the site of protein synthesis

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Eukaryotes

An organism that consists of cells containing distinct organelles including a nucleus, and other membrane bound organelles

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Exocytosis

A process by which substances are removed from the cell

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Extra cellular matrix

The material between the cells of multicellular organisms

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Facilitated diffusion

The process whereby a substance is transported across the plasma membrane of a cell, using transport proteins that are specific to each solute transported but without the expenditure of energy

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Fluid mosaic model

..

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Golgi body/apparatus/complex

A membrane bound organelle of a cell comprising of stacks of four to ten disk shaped cisternae.

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Hypotonic

A solution that is lower in solute compared to another

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Hypertonic

A solution that is higher in solute compared to another

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Intermediate filament

A group of protein filaments that make up one component of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, they form rope like bundles that provide tensile strength for the cell.

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Isotonic

A solution with solute concentration equal to another solute

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Lysosomes

A membrane bound vesicle of an animal cell that contains digestive & decomposing enzymes

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Microfilament

A thread like structure made of protein that is involved in various from of cellular movements

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Microtubules

Small tubules made up of protein tubulin; they are a major component in the cytoskeleton, that is maintaining cell shape

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Non-self

Describes agents(cells organisms, substances) that are not recognised by the immune system as being part of the organism

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Nuclear envelope

The membrane of phospholipids around the nucleus of the cell

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Nucleolus

A dark staining sub-organelle found within the nucleus of the cells

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Nucleus

An organelle bound by a double membrane found within eukaryotic cells

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Organelle

Describes the structures within a cell that carry out specific functions

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Osmosis

The passive process of diffusion of water across a semi permible membrane

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Phagocytosis

The process of endocytosis solid molecules are transported into the cell

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Phospholipid

A lipid molecule with one of the fatty acids replaces with a phosphate group

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Pinocytosis

The process of endocytosis by which liquid or gas molecules are brought into the cell

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Plasma membrane (aka cell membrane)

The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and contains the cytoplasm, and keeps it from the extracellular fluid

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Plasmolysis

An occurrence of a plant cell to reduce its internal size due to lack of water

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Prokaryotic

Describes a cell that does not contain any membrane bound organelles including a nucleus

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Protein pathway

The movement of proteins produced by ribosomes attached to the Endoplasmic reticulum, through a series of compartments and vesicles, via the Golgi body, to secretory vesicles for export by Exocytosis

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Ribosomes

Organelles comprised of ribosomal RNA and protein that facilitate the process of protein synthesis

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Selectively permeable

Describes a boundary, such as the plasma membrane, that allows only some substances to pass through it while keeping other substances out

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Self

Describes agents(cells organisms, substances) that are recognised by the immune system as being part of the organism

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Solute

A molecule or chemical that is submerged within a solvent

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Solvent

The liquid substance in which the solute is dissolved in

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Stomata

An opening located on the underside epidermis of plant leaves that's is bounded by two guard cells

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Turgid

Describes a state of a plant cell in which the vacuole is filled, and the cell wall is convex due to this

46

Turgor pressure

The force exerted by the vacuole when at a high capacity

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Vacuole

The organelles found mainly in plants that house the water and other wastes of the cell within the centre of the cell.

48

Anaerobic respiration

A process where by glucose is broken down in a oxygen deprived environment, into pyruvate (in humans) then lactic acid, (in yeast) then ethanol.

49

Organelles

A structure found with in cells that performs a specialised metabolic function

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Cholesterol

C27H45OH, it is a molecule that sits in the cell membrane and increases rigidity and flexiblity

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Glycoproteins

A complex molecule composed of protein connected to a carbohydrate.

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Hydrophilic

Water loving, that is it is water soluble compound

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Hydrophobic

Water hating, that is it is insoluble in water

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Receptor protein

A protein lodged in the cell membrane that detects hormones and other chemicals and cause the cascade effect of secondary messengers in signal transduction

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Recognition proteins

Proteins imbedded in the cell membrane that detect self and non self cells

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Transport protein

A protein imbedded in the cell membrane that allows access in or out of the cell

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Crenation

A process by which an animal cell left in a hypertonic solution shrinks and shrivels as it looses its water.

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Equilibrium

A point at which two solutions have equal net movement between each other

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Flaccid

A process by which a plant when losing water droops

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Lysis

A process by which a cell membrane is breached.

In osmosis this is done when an animal cell left in a hypotonic solution bulges and bursts as it gains its water.

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Passive transport

The processes by which substances are moved across a semipermeable membrane which out the usage of energy

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ATP

Adenosine tri-phosphate, a chemical with high energy bonds that when dissociation occurs large amounts of energy are given off

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Cisternae

One of the flattened vesicles comprising the Golgi body on part of the rough Endoplasmic reticulum

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Exocytosis

A process by which substances ar transported out of the cell by a vesicle

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Vesicles

A membrane bound sac found within cells that plays a role in the distribution, organisation, and transport of substances both inside and within the cell