4- Detecting And Responding ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4- Detecting And Responding ✅ Deck (59)
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1

Action potential

The brief change in electrical charge across a nerve impulse along the neuron

2

Autocrine hormone

A hormone whose target cell is the secretory cell itself

3

Axon

The threadlike part of a neuron that carries the nerve impulse away from the cell boys of the neuron to an effector organ or to another neuron

4

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The rate of energy production to maintain a resting animal. It is expressed in kilojoules per square meter of body surface per hour (kJm^-2h^-1) it can be measured by the rate of oxygen consumption per unit time of the organism

5

Cell body

The main part of a neuron that contains the nucleus

6

Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord in vertebrates
The nerve cords and ganglia in invertebrates

7

Connector/inter neuron

Neurons that connect with other neurons within the central nervous system

8

Cryptochrome

A set of blue light receptor proteins found in plants that regulate germination, elongation, and photoperiodism

9

Dendrite

The short, breaching process the cell body of a neuron

10

Diabetes mellitus

A disease of humans that results in impaired glucose metabolism

11

Ductless/endocrine glands

Any gland in an animal that manufactures hormones and secretes them directly into the blood stream.

12

Effector

Describes something, in particular an organ/gland, that carriers out an action

13

Exteroceptor

A receptor that receives signals from the external environment

14

Feedback

A process whereby the increased level of output of a biochemical system reduces production of that output.

15

Goitre

A swelling in the neck (behind the larynx) caused by an enlarged thyroid gland

16

Growth regulator

A plant 'hormone' or chemical that helps to coordinate plant development in response to the environment

17

Homeostasis

The process by which internal conditions of an organism are maintained despite changes in the external environment

18

Hormone

A substance produced by cells (of an endocrine gland or special nerve cell) of an organism in response to a specific nervous or chemical stimulus

19

Hyperglycaemia

Elevated blood sugar

20

Hyperthyroidism

High levels of the hormone thyroxine

21

Hypoglycaemia

Low blood sugar levels

22

Hypothyroidism

Low levels of thyroxine

23

Interocepter

A receptor that receives signals from the internal environment

24

Motor neuron

A nerve cell that controls muscle or gland activity

25

Myelin sheath

The lipid like material that forms an outer covering around axons of neurons

26

Negative feedback

The process of feedback by which the action nutralises the original stimulus

27

Neuron

A nerve cell

28

Neurotransmitter

A chemical compound which includes acetylcholine and noradrenaline(norepinephrine), produced by neurons.

29

Paracrine hormone

A hormone for which the target cell is close to the signal releasing cell, and the hormone is broken down too quickly to be carried to other parts of the body

30

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

All the sensory receptors, nerve tissue and effectors that work in conjunction with, by tare not apart of the CNS