4- Detecting And Responding ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4- Detecting And Responding ✅ Deck (59):
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Action potential

The brief change in electrical charge across a nerve impulse along the neuron

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Autocrine hormone

A hormone whose target cell is the secretory cell itself

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Axon

The threadlike part of a neuron that carries the nerve impulse away from the cell boys of the neuron to an effector organ or to another neuron

4

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The rate of energy production to maintain a resting animal. It is expressed in kilojoules per square meter of body surface per hour (kJm^-2h^-1) it can be measured by the rate of oxygen consumption per unit time of the organism

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Cell body

The main part of a neuron that contains the nucleus

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Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord in vertebrates
The nerve cords and ganglia in invertebrates

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Connector/inter neuron

Neurons that connect with other neurons within the central nervous system

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Cryptochrome

A set of blue light receptor proteins found in plants that regulate germination, elongation, and photoperiodism

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Dendrite

The short, breaching process the cell body of a neuron

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Diabetes mellitus

A disease of humans that results in impaired glucose metabolism

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Ductless/endocrine glands

Any gland in an animal that manufactures hormones and secretes them directly into the blood stream.

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Effector

Describes something, in particular an organ/gland, that carriers out an action

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Exteroceptor

A receptor that receives signals from the external environment

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Feedback

A process whereby the increased level of output of a biochemical system reduces production of that output.

15

Goitre

A swelling in the neck (behind the larynx) caused by an enlarged thyroid gland

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Growth regulator

A plant 'hormone' or chemical that helps to coordinate plant development in response to the environment

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Homeostasis

The process by which internal conditions of an organism are maintained despite changes in the external environment

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Hormone

A substance produced by cells (of an endocrine gland or special nerve cell) of an organism in response to a specific nervous or chemical stimulus

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Hyperglycaemia

Elevated blood sugar

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Hyperthyroidism

High levels of the hormone thyroxine

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Hypoglycaemia

Low blood sugar levels

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Hypothyroidism

Low levels of thyroxine

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Interocepter

A receptor that receives signals from the internal environment

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Motor neuron

A nerve cell that controls muscle or gland activity

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Myelin sheath

The lipid like material that forms an outer covering around axons of neurons

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Negative feedback

The process of feedback by which the action nutralises the original stimulus

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Neuron

A nerve cell

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Neurotransmitter

A chemical compound which includes acetylcholine and noradrenaline(norepinephrine), produced by neurons.

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Paracrine hormone

A hormone for which the target cell is close to the signal releasing cell, and the hormone is broken down too quickly to be carried to other parts of the body

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Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

All the sensory receptors, nerve tissue and effectors that work in conjunction with, by tare not apart of the CNS

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Pheromone

A chemical substance made and released by one organism that acts by means of communication with other organisms usually the same species

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Photoprotein

Light receptor protein

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positive feedback

The process of feedback by which the action adds to
the original stimulus

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postaglandin

A fatty acid hormone that is continually produced and released by the cell membrane of nearly every cell membrane of the body

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Receptor

A protein molecule found in cells that is able to detect a stimulus and initiate a response.

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Response

The resulting action of a stimulus

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Resting poteintial

the electrical potential difference across an unstimulated nerve cells plasma membrane

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Secondary messenger

Low-weight diffusible molecules that are used to relay a signal with in the cell

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Sensory neuron

a nerve cell that carries information from sensory receptors to the central nervous systems

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signal transduction

a process by which a cell converts on kind of signal to another

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stimulus

A change in the internal or external environment of an organism that can be detected by receptors

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Synapse

The microscopic gap that exists between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron or effector cell.

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Synaptic cleft

The space between the pre-synaptic cell and post-synaptic cell across which the neurotransmitter diffuses.

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Differentiation

The modification of the structure and function of a cell that occurs in the course of its development and that often leads to cell specialisation

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Interstitial/tissue fluid

Water, containing cell nutrients and waste products, in the spaces between cells

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Stimulus response model

A model that shows the stimulus, detection, co-ordination centre, effector, and response

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Apoptosis

Controlled cell death

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Target cell

The specific cell that is targeted by a hormone or neurotransmitter/impulse

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Target protein

Target proteins are functional biomolecules that are addressed and controlled by biologically active compounds. They are used in the processes of transduction, transformation and conjugation

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Amino acid/protein hormone

A hormone base upon proteins or amino acids

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Amplification

The act or result of increasing in size or effect

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Antagonistic hormones

Hormones that act to return body conditions to within acceptable limits from opposite extremes

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Cell membrane receptor

A protein receptor within the cell membrane that detects a certain molecule

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Receptor hormone complex

The complex formed upon connection of Hormone and receptor

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Receptor protein

A protein molecule found in cells that detects a stimulus and intimates a response

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Signal cascade

The event that occurs after a secondary messenger is activated, the cascade is the secondary messenger's secondary messenger

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Steroid hormone

A hormone based upon steroids, it can pass through the phospholipid bilayer

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Thyroxin

A hormone that controls basal and cellular metabolic rate

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Threshold

The lowest intensity of a stimulus that a receptor can detect and respond to.