7- Heredity ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7- Heredity ✅ Deck (83)
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1

Autosomes

The chromosomes that are not linked to sex

2

Centromere

The centre connecting point in-between two chromotids

3

Chromosome

The structure composed of DNA and protein that contains along its length linear arrays of genes carrying genetic information.

4

Chromatid

The daughter strands of a duplicated chromosome joined together by the centromere

5

Chromatin

A complex of proteins and DNA in eukaryotic cells

6

Diploid (2n)

Two sets of matching homologous chromosomes

7

Gametes

Sex cells, also known as gametocytes

8

Gene

The basis of heredity; segment of DNA that codes for the formation of a polypeptide

9

Genome

All of the genetic material contained within an organism or a cell; includes both the chromosomes within the neurone and the DNA of the mitochondria

10

Haploid (n)

One set of chromosomes

11

Heredity

The study of inheritance

12

Heterosomes

Non-identical chromosomes pairing up at meiosis. (X&Y in males)

13

Histones

A type of protein associated with DNA in eukaryotic cells

14

Homologous chromosomes

Pairs of chromosomes that have the same: size snap, and genes at the same location

15

Karyotype

The display of the number, size, and shape of chromosomes

16

Sex chromosomes

Chromosomes that affect sexual traits; one has homologous sex chromosomes the other has a dissimilar.

17

Somatic cells

Normal body cells as compared with germ-line cells from which the gametes are derived

18

Anaphase

A stage in cell division in which the chromosomes move to the poles of the new cells

19

Binary fission

Division of a cell into two without mitosis; a prokaryotic cell splits to form two daughter cells

20

Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm

21

DNA helicase

An enzyme that helps the two strands of the DNA double helix unwind and separate

22

DNA ligase

An enzyme used to catalyse the formation of a bond between two pieces of DNA

23

DNA polymerase

An enzyme capable of making an exact copies of fragments of DNA

24

G1 phase

The stage begins with dismantling of the structures that remain in the cell from from the previous cell division. The cell grows in size and metabolises important enzymes that are required for DNA synthesis.

25

G2 phase

The cell prepares it self for mitosis during this stage, synthesising the mitotic spindle and preparing for the condensation of the chromosomes.

26

Interphase

The stage in between nuclear division where the cell performs its everyday function.

27

Meiosis

A two phase type of cellular division in which the chromosome number of cell is halved to haploid a number; meiosis is the basis of gamete formation in animals and spore formation in plants

28

Metaphase

A stage in cell division processes of meiosis and mitosis. During this stage the chromosomes line up at the equatorial plane of the cell.

29

Mitosis

A process of nuclear division that maintains the parental number of chromosomes for daughter cells; it is the basis of bodily growth and asexual reproduction in many eukaryotic cells.

30

Prophase

The first stage in the cell division process of meiosis and mitosis. Chromatin threads condense and sister chromatids become visible (held together by a centromere) a spindle forms and the nucleolus disappears, as the nuclear envelope breaks down.