3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways Flashcards Preview

Biology BC 3&4 > 3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways Deck (74)
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1

Acetyl CoA

A 2 carbon compound that is a substrate for the cytochrome acid cycle. It is formed from pyruvate during glycolysis and from the degradation of fatty acids and some amino acids.

2

Activation energy

The amount of energy that must be possessed by a reactant before it reacts.

3

Active site

The place on an enzyme molecule that the substrate binds to

4

ADP

Adenosine di-phosphate, the molecule that when combined with energy and a phosphate forms ATP

5

Aerobic respiration

Cellular respiration occurring in an oxygen rich environment, leads the the production of 36ATP, CO2 and H2O

6

Alcohol fermentation

The anaerobic respiration that takes place in yeasts, it produces ethanol and energy(small amounts)

7

Anabolic reactions

Reactions that build up an molecules

8

Anaerobic

A biological process that occurs with out the presence of oxygen

9

Antioxidant

Compound that neutralise oxidants, which are produced when cells in the body burn oxygen to produce energy; oxidants can clog arteries and contribute to cancer, diabetes and other diseases; antioxidants, found in fruits and vegetables, contribute to good health

10

Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food from light energy or chemical energy without eating; most green plants, many protists and many bacteria are autotrophs

11

Biochemical pathway

A chemical reaction in a living cell that proceeds via a series of intermediate compounds to the final product

12

C3 Plants

The type of photosynthesis carried out by most plants in which a three carbon compound, Phosphoglycerate, is the first stable product of carbon fixation; this occurs during the first step of the Calvin benson cycle

13

C4 Plants

The type of photosynthesis found in tropical grasses in which a four carbon compound, malate, is the first stable product of carbon fixation; carbon dioxide is later drawn out of the malate and into the Calvin benson cycle rather than directly from air

14

Calvin-Benson cycle

A series of biochemical reactions taking place in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms; these light-independent reactions occur in the stroma, where energy from the light-dependent reactions is used to fix carbon dioxide and convert it into sugar.

15

CAM plants (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants)

These plants use an enzyme to fix carbon dioxide at night, generating a four carbon compound, malate, which is broken down during the day to release carbon dioxide, which enters the Calvin benson cycle

16

Carbon fixation

The use of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its conversion into carbohydrates; this process occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells

17

Catabolic reactions

Reactions such as cellular respiration that involve the breakdown of complex molecules to simpler products

18

Cellular metabolism

All chemical processes occurring within a living cell

19

Chlorophyll

A green pigment molecule that also absorbs red light to become ionised; the highly energised electrons generated in this house process are donated to organic molecules and ATP is produced, yielding chemical energy from light energy.

20

Chloroplast

A double membrane organelle that is found in the cytoplasm of plants and algae which contains chlorophyll and the enzymes necessary to carry out photosynthesis

21

Coenzyme

A small organic cofactor molecule that plays an important role in enzyme-catalysed processes; it may function as a carrier, donor or acceptor of a substance involved in the reaction and/or it may bind with an enzyme to activate it

22

Cofactors

Various substances , such as mineral ions and vitamins, that need to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyse a certain reaction

23

Competitive inhibitor

A substance that binds to the active site of an enzyme to compete with the substrate

24

Cristae

Infolding of the inner membrane into the matrix of the mitochondria, thus increasing the total surface are of the inner membrane; components of the electron transport chain are located

25

Cytochromes

Membrane bound proteins that carry our electron transport; they are located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and in chloroplasts

26

Electron transport system

Process involving the stepwise transport of electrons to a final electron acceptor, such as oxygen(in aerobic respiration); ultimatly, it creates an electrochemical gradient across membranes to drive the phosphorylation of ADP to yield ATP

27

Endergonic reaction

An energy-requiring chemical reaction

28

Endosymbiotic theory

A theory that suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria arose from scientists bacteria that were ingested by eukaryotic host cells about a billion years ago

29

Enzyme

A specific protein catalyst that acts to increase the rate of reaction within the cell by losing the amount of activation energy required for the reaction to take place.

30

Exergonic reaction

A reaction that releases energy