3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways Flashcards Preview

Biology BC 3&4 > 3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways Deck (74):
1

Acetyl CoA

A 2 carbon compound that is a substrate for the cytochrome acid cycle. It is formed from pyruvate during glycolysis and from the degradation of fatty acids and some amino acids.

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Activation energy

The amount of energy that must be possessed by a reactant before it reacts.

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Active site

The place on an enzyme molecule that the substrate binds to

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ADP

Adenosine di-phosphate, the molecule that when combined with energy and a phosphate forms ATP

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Aerobic respiration

Cellular respiration occurring in an oxygen rich environment, leads the the production of 36ATP, CO2 and H2O

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Alcohol fermentation

The anaerobic respiration that takes place in yeasts, it produces ethanol and energy(small amounts)

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Anabolic reactions

Reactions that build up an molecules

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Anaerobic

A biological process that occurs with out the presence of oxygen

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Antioxidant

Compound that neutralise oxidants, which are produced when cells in the body burn oxygen to produce energy; oxidants can clog arteries and contribute to cancer, diabetes and other diseases; antioxidants, found in fruits and vegetables, contribute to good health

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Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food from light energy or chemical energy without eating; most green plants, many protists and many bacteria are autotrophs

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Biochemical pathway

A chemical reaction in a living cell that proceeds via a series of intermediate compounds to the final product

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C3 Plants

The type of photosynthesis carried out by most plants in which a three carbon compound, Phosphoglycerate, is the first stable product of carbon fixation; this occurs during the first step of the Calvin benson cycle

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C4 Plants

The type of photosynthesis found in tropical grasses in which a four carbon compound, malate, is the first stable product of carbon fixation; carbon dioxide is later drawn out of the malate and into the Calvin benson cycle rather than directly from air

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Calvin-Benson cycle

A series of biochemical reactions taking place in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms; these light-independent reactions occur in the stroma, where energy from the light-dependent reactions is used to fix carbon dioxide and convert it into sugar.

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CAM plants (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants)

These plants use an enzyme to fix carbon dioxide at night, generating a four carbon compound, malate, which is broken down during the day to release carbon dioxide, which enters the Calvin benson cycle

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Carbon fixation

The use of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its conversion into carbohydrates; this process occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells

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Catabolic reactions

Reactions such as cellular respiration that involve the breakdown of complex molecules to simpler products

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Cellular metabolism

All chemical processes occurring within a living cell

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Chlorophyll

A green pigment molecule that also absorbs red light to become ionised; the highly energised electrons generated in this house process are donated to organic molecules and ATP is produced, yielding chemical energy from light energy.

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Chloroplast

A double membrane organelle that is found in the cytoplasm of plants and algae which contains chlorophyll and the enzymes necessary to carry out photosynthesis

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Coenzyme

A small organic cofactor molecule that plays an important role in enzyme-catalysed processes; it may function as a carrier, donor or acceptor of a substance involved in the reaction and/or it may bind with an enzyme to activate it

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Cofactors

Various substances , such as mineral ions and vitamins, that need to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyse a certain reaction

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Competitive inhibitor

A substance that binds to the active site of an enzyme to compete with the substrate

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Cristae

Infolding of the inner membrane into the matrix of the mitochondria, thus increasing the total surface are of the inner membrane; components of the electron transport chain are located

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Cytochromes

Membrane bound proteins that carry our electron transport; they are located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and in chloroplasts

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Electron transport system

Process involving the stepwise transport of electrons to a final electron acceptor, such as oxygen(in aerobic respiration); ultimatly, it creates an electrochemical gradient across membranes to drive the phosphorylation of ADP to yield ATP

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Endergonic reaction

An energy-requiring chemical reaction

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Endosymbiotic theory

A theory that suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria arose from scientists bacteria that were ingested by eukaryotic host cells about a billion years ago

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Enzyme

A specific protein catalyst that acts to increase the rate of reaction within the cell by losing the amount of activation energy required for the reaction to take place.

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Exergonic reaction

A reaction that releases energy

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Free radical

An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron; free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack cellular molecules, such ad DNA or lipids, to capture electrons, causing damage to the cell

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Glycolysis

An energy-yielding process occurring in the cell cytoskeleton in which glucose is partially broken down into pyruvate in enzyme reactions that do not require oxygen; this is the first stage in cellular respiration, it generates two ATP molecules

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Grana

A stack of thylakoid membranes in a chloroplast that contain chlorophyll

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Heterotroph

Organisms that must consume to aquifer food

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Induced fit model

A model to explain that the shape of an enzymes active site undergoes specific changes, induced by the substrate, to achieve a high degree of specificity with the substrate

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Kerbs cycle

A biochemical pathway that requires oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria as part of cellular respiration; acetyl coA, the product of glycolysis, is broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy in to form of ATP

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Lactic acid

A product of anaerobic respiration in animals

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Lactic acid fermentation

A from of anaerobic respiration that occurs in animal cells and some anaerobic bacteria, glucose is converted to lactic acid with a yield of two ATP molecules

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Light-dependent stage

The first stage of photosynthesis; requires light energy that is absorbed by chlorophyll to produce high energy electrons that split water molecules, producing oxygen and hydrogen ions and ATP as a product

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Light Independent stage

(Know as the Calvin benson cycle) carbon dioxide is the source of carbon that is reduced through a series of chemical reactions to a carbohydrate using the hydrogen ions and ATP produced in the first stage of photosynthesis.

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Lock and key model

A model that explains how substrates bind specifically with the active site of an enzyme

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Mitochondrion

A double membrane organelle found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; the site of aerobic cellular respiration.

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Non-competitive inhibitor

A molecule that binds to an enzyme a where but the active site that changes the shape of the enzyme not allowing it to bind with the substrate

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Organic catalysts

A group of biomolecules such as an enzyme, that increase the rate of cell reactions

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Phosphorylation

The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule

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Photorespiration

An alternative pathway for Rubisco, the carbon fixing enzyme in photosynthesis, in which oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced, decreasing the rate of photosynthesis; generally occurs when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide

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Pigments

Substances such as chlorophyll or melanin, that produce a characteristic colour in tissue.

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Psychrophiles

Organisms that live in extremely cold conditions

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Pyruvate

A three carbon sugar that is produced ta the end of glycolysis

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Stroma

Unstructured material tang Gilles the interior of a chloroplast and surrounds the thylakoid membrane; light-independent reactions Take place here to produces organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water

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Thermophiles

Organisms that live in environments of high tempretures

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Thylakoid membranes

Flattened membrane sacs, usually arranged in stacks call grana, containing the pigments, enzymes and electron carrier molecules involved in the light dependent stage of photosynthesis

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ATP

Adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that releases energy for cellular reactions when it's terminal phosphate is removed

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Condensation reaction

An anabolic reaction in which a small molecule is released as a product

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Metabolism

A collective term used to describe all of the physical and chemical processes that are controlled by enzymes and take place within a cell

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Polymerisation reaction

A reaction in which repeating units are added to one another to produce a polymer of the monomer

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Products

The substances gained after a reaction

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Reactants

The substances that are used to react and produce the products

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Catalyst

A chemical or element that increases the rate of reaction, specific to a reaction

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Denature

A process by which a protein is morphed by temperature, pH, or chemicals

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Enzyme-substrate complex

A model that describes how the enzyme and its substrate bind, that being said it shows molecular specificity

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Inhibitor

Any element, chemical or molecule that does not allow a enzyme and its substrate to bind

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Rational drug design

rational drug design refers to the development of a drug that specifically inhibits the active sites of a pathogenic agent (I.e. a competitive inhibitor) and thereby hinders the ability of the pathogen to carry out its pathogenic function and potentially cause disease.

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Substrate

Refers to a molecule that is specific to its enzyme and is what is broken down or put together

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Acceptor molecules

A substance that can accept hydrogen or electrons lost from one compound in a chemical reaction and transfer them to another.
Such as NADH, NADPH, FADH2

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Thylakoid

A number of flattened sacs inside a chloroplast, bound by pigmented membrane s on which the light dependant reactions of photosynthesis take place and arranged in stacks (grana)

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NAD/NADH

(Nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide) an acceptor molecule that is in cellular respiration

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NADP/NADPH

(Nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate) an acceptor molecule that is found in cellular respiration and photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis

A duel step biochemical process by which H2O, O2 and glucose is produced from CO2, H2O

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Stomata

A part of a plant that contains two guard cells and regulates the intake of CO2 in to the gaps of the plant

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Cellular respiration

A biochemical pathway by which glucose is used with oxygen to produce CO2, water and energy (32/36 ATP)

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Ethanol

A product of alcoholic fermentation comprised of 2 carbon, 1-oxygen, and 6 hydrogens

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FAD/FADH2

(Flavin adenine dinucleotide) An acceptor molecule, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism, found in cellular respiration.

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Matrix

The inner fold of the mitochondria