Flashcards in 3- Dynamic Cells: Biochmical Pathways Deck (74):
A 2 carbon compound that is a substrate for the cytochrome acid cycle. It is formed from pyruvate during glycolysis and from the degradation of fatty acids and some amino acids.
The amount of energy that must be possessed by a reactant before it reacts.
The place on an enzyme molecule that the substrate binds to
Adenosine di-phosphate, the molecule that when combined with energy and a phosphate forms ATP
Cellular respiration occurring in an oxygen rich environment, leads the the production of 36ATP, CO2 and H2O
The anaerobic respiration that takes place in yeasts, it produces ethanol and energy(small amounts)
Reactions that build up an molecules
A biological process that occurs with out the presence of oxygen
Compound that neutralise oxidants, which are produced when cells in the body burn oxygen to produce energy; oxidants can clog arteries and contribute to cancer, diabetes and other diseases; antioxidants, found in fruits and vegetables, contribute to good health
An organism that makes its own food from light energy or chemical energy without eating; most green plants, many protists and many bacteria are autotrophs
A chemical reaction in a living cell that proceeds via a series of intermediate compounds to the final product
The type of photosynthesis carried out by most plants in which a three carbon compound, Phosphoglycerate, is the first stable product of carbon fixation; this occurs during the first step of the Calvin benson cycle
The type of photosynthesis found in tropical grasses in which a four carbon compound, malate, is the first stable product of carbon fixation; carbon dioxide is later drawn out of the malate and into the Calvin benson cycle rather than directly from air
A series of biochemical reactions taking place in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms; these light-independent reactions occur in the stroma, where energy from the light-dependent reactions is used to fix carbon dioxide and convert it into sugar.
CAM plants (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants)
These plants use an enzyme to fix carbon dioxide at night, generating a four carbon compound, malate, which is broken down during the day to release carbon dioxide, which enters the Calvin benson cycle
The use of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its conversion into carbohydrates; this process occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells
Reactions such as cellular respiration that involve the breakdown of complex molecules to simpler products
All chemical processes occurring within a living cell
A green pigment molecule that also absorbs red light to become ionised; the highly energised electrons generated in this house process are donated to organic molecules and ATP is produced, yielding chemical energy from light energy.
A double membrane organelle that is found in the cytoplasm of plants and algae which contains chlorophyll and the enzymes necessary to carry out photosynthesis
A small organic cofactor molecule that plays an important role in enzyme-catalysed processes; it may function as a carrier, donor or acceptor of a substance involved in the reaction and/or it may bind with an enzyme to activate it
Various substances , such as mineral ions and vitamins, that need to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyse a certain reaction
A substance that binds to the active site of an enzyme to compete with the substrate
Infolding of the inner membrane into the matrix of the mitochondria, thus increasing the total surface are of the inner membrane; components of the electron transport chain are located
Membrane bound proteins that carry our electron transport; they are located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and in chloroplasts
Electron transport system
Process involving the stepwise transport of electrons to a final electron acceptor, such as oxygen(in aerobic respiration); ultimatly, it creates an electrochemical gradient across membranes to drive the phosphorylation of ADP to yield ATP
An energy-requiring chemical reaction
A theory that suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria arose from scientists bacteria that were ingested by eukaryotic host cells about a billion years ago
A specific protein catalyst that acts to increase the rate of reaction within the cell by losing the amount of activation energy required for the reaction to take place.
A reaction that releases energy
An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron; free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack cellular molecules, such ad DNA or lipids, to capture electrons, causing damage to the cell
An energy-yielding process occurring in the cell cytoskeleton in which glucose is partially broken down into pyruvate in enzyme reactions that do not require oxygen; this is the first stage in cellular respiration, it generates two ATP molecules
A stack of thylakoid membranes in a chloroplast that contain chlorophyll
Organisms that must consume to aquifer food
Induced fit model
A model to explain that the shape of an enzymes active site undergoes specific changes, induced by the substrate, to achieve a high degree of specificity with the substrate
A biochemical pathway that requires oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria as part of cellular respiration; acetyl coA, the product of glycolysis, is broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy in to form of ATP
A product of anaerobic respiration in animals
Lactic acid fermentation
A from of anaerobic respiration that occurs in animal cells and some anaerobic bacteria, glucose is converted to lactic acid with a yield of two ATP molecules
The first stage of photosynthesis; requires light energy that is absorbed by chlorophyll to produce high energy electrons that split water molecules, producing oxygen and hydrogen ions and ATP as a product
Light Independent stage
(Know as the Calvin benson cycle) carbon dioxide is the source of carbon that is reduced through a series of chemical reactions to a carbohydrate using the hydrogen ions and ATP produced in the first stage of photosynthesis.
Lock and key model
A model that explains how substrates bind specifically with the active site of an enzyme
A double membrane organelle found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; the site of aerobic cellular respiration.
A molecule that binds to an enzyme a where but the active site that changes the shape of the enzyme not allowing it to bind with the substrate
A group of biomolecules such as an enzyme, that increase the rate of cell reactions
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule
An alternative pathway for Rubisco, the carbon fixing enzyme in photosynthesis, in which oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced, decreasing the rate of photosynthesis; generally occurs when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide
Substances such as chlorophyll or melanin, that produce a characteristic colour in tissue.
Organisms that live in extremely cold conditions
A three carbon sugar that is produced ta the end of glycolysis
Unstructured material tang Gilles the interior of a chloroplast and surrounds the thylakoid membrane; light-independent reactions Take place here to produces organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
Organisms that live in environments of high tempretures
Flattened membrane sacs, usually arranged in stacks call grana, containing the pigments, enzymes and electron carrier molecules involved in the light dependent stage of photosynthesis
Adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that releases energy for cellular reactions when it's terminal phosphate is removed
An anabolic reaction in which a small molecule is released as a product
A collective term used to describe all of the physical and chemical processes that are controlled by enzymes and take place within a cell
A reaction in which repeating units are added to one another to produce a polymer of the monomer
The substances gained after a reaction
The substances that are used to react and produce the products
A chemical or element that increases the rate of reaction, specific to a reaction
A process by which a protein is morphed by temperature, pH, or chemicals
A model that describes how the enzyme and its substrate bind, that being said it shows molecular specificity
Any element, chemical or molecule that does not allow a enzyme and its substrate to bind
Rational drug design
rational drug design refers to the development of a drug that specifically inhibits the active sites of a pathogenic agent (I.e. a competitive inhibitor) and thereby hinders the ability of the pathogen to carry out its pathogenic function and potentially cause disease.
Refers to a molecule that is specific to its enzyme and is what is broken down or put together
A substance that can accept hydrogen or electrons lost from one compound in a chemical reaction and transfer them to another.
Such as NADH, NADPH, FADH2
A number of flattened sacs inside a chloroplast, bound by pigmented membrane s on which the light dependant reactions of photosynthesis take place and arranged in stacks (grana)
(Nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide) an acceptor molecule that is in cellular respiration
(Nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate) an acceptor molecule that is found in cellular respiration and photosynthesis
A duel step biochemical process by which H2O, O2 and glucose is produced from CO2, H2O
A part of a plant that contains two guard cells and regulates the intake of CO2 in to the gaps of the plant
A biochemical pathway by which glucose is used with oxygen to produce CO2, water and energy (32/36 ATP)
A product of alcoholic fermentation comprised of 2 carbon, 1-oxygen, and 6 hydrogens
(Flavin adenine dinucleotide) An acceptor molecule, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism, found in cellular respiration.