Flashcards in 102 First Aid Fundamentals Deck (24):
Describe the primary purpose of first aid.
emergency care for the sick or injured
State the three objectives of First Aid
Save life, prevent further injury, limit infection
State three methods of controlling bleeding
Direct pressure, pressure point, elevation, tourniquet
Identify an example of a pressure point
Place where a main artery is close to the skin surface and over a bone. Brachial artery in inner elbow. 11 each side
Describe the common causes of suicide.
hopelessness, helplessness, depression
Describe the symptoms and treatment for shock
Vacant eyes, lack of pulse in extremities, feeling cold. Elevate legs and cover to keep warm
Describe a 1st degree burn
Slight pain, redness, tenderness, and increased temperature of the affected area
State the symptoms and treatment for the following heat-related injuries: Heat Exhaustion
cool, moist skin, profuse sweating. Pupils dilated. Body heat may even be below normal. Apply wet cloths and fan the victim. Don't let them get chilled. Give small amounts of water to drink.
State the symptoms and treatment for the following heat-related injuries: Heat Stroke
breakdown of sweating, Pupils constricted. Very high body temperature. Hot, dry skin, weak, rapid pulse. Pack ice in heat areas (groin, armpits, neck, etc.) but bear in mind that permanent brain damage can result from heat stroke
State the difference between an "open" and a "closed" fracture
open - bone sticks out of skin and needs to be immobilized where it sticks out
Describe first aid treatment for fractures
If it's an open fracture, treat bleeding first. Splint and immobilize with anything rigid. It's gonna hurt them, but it'll hurt way more if it's not immobilized.
Describe the symptoms and treatment for a joint dislocation
Odd angles, weakened muscles at joint. If possible get to closest trained person so they can pop joint back into place.
Explain when and why a cold pack or heat pad would be used on a sprain
Apply cold pack immediately for the first 24-48 hours to reduce swelling. 24 hours after the last cold pack is applied, apply heat pad to increase circulation.
Describe first aid treatment for snake bites
Keep wound level with heart, NOT elevated. Take off jewelry, gently cuff the wound and use a suction extractor
State the following as applied to electric shock: Rescue and Treatment
Rescue-DO NOT TOUCH THE VICTIM'S BODY WITH YOUR OWN. Turn off current and remove electrical source. If unable, use a branch or broom handle or other nonconductive object to push or pull the victim away from the current.
Describe the methods for clearing an obstructed airway
Heimlich maneuver, reclining abdominal thrusts if victim is laying down
Describe the effects of Hypothermia
Victim tightens up and shivers, blood retreats to core, breathing is slow and shallow, victim goes into shock.
Describe the effects of Superficial Frostbite
Ice crystals form in upper layers of skin. Upper layers will still move over lower layers.
Describe the effects of Deep Frostbite
Ice crystals form in the deeper layers of the skin. Skin will no longer move over bony ridges.
Discuss Broken Bones as they pertain to SAR
Splint and immobilize broken bones but DO NOT attempt to reset them. If a fracture is open, the first step is to stop bleeding.
Discuss Burns as they pertain to SAR
Use a sterile, dry dressing and keep the wound covered to prevent infection.
Discuss CPR as it pertains to SAR
It's most important to keep the victim alive. Treat severe bleeding first and quickly, and then focus efforts on CPR. If at all possible, use a second swimmer or crewman to diagnose and treat further injuries.
Describe a 2nd degree burn
The inner skin mag be damaged, resulting in blistering, severe pain, some dehydration, and possible shock