107 General Aviation Fundamentals Flashcards Preview

Naval Aircrew Warfare Specialist (NAWS) > 107 General Aviation Fundamentals > Flashcards

Flashcards in 107 General Aviation Fundamentals Deck (76):

Define Newton's First Law of Motion

An object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until acted upon by an outside force.


Define Newton's Second Law of Motion

If an object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an outside force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.


Define Newton's Third Law of Motion

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.


Describe Inertia

the willingness of an object to remain at rest or continue in motion unless acted upon by an outside force


Describe Acceleration

The rate of change of the speed and/or velocity of matter with time


Describe Speed

The rate of movement or motion in a given amount of time. (i.e. 60mph)


Describe Velocity

The speed of an object over a given time AND direction (i.e. 200mph due north)


Define Bernoulli's Principle

When a liquid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid passing through the construction is increased and its pressure is decreased. (when velocity is increased, pressure is decreased.)


Discuss Wind Warnings and their effect on naval aviation

1. Small Craft-harbor and inland waters (18-33 knots)
2. Gale- same plus ocean areas, airfields & installations (34-47 knots)
3. Storm- same (48+ knots)


Discuss Hurricane/Typhoon conditions and their effect on naval aviation

Destructive winds of 80 knots or greater are occurring or anticipated within:
I. 12 hrs
II. 24 hrs
III. 48 hrs
IV. 72 hrs
V. 96 hrs


Discuss T-Storm/Tornado conditions and their effect on naval aviation

T2 - (watch) 25 mi or 6 hrs
T1 - (warning) 10 mi or 1 hr


Discuss Thunderstorm Watch/Warning

Watch - possible
Warning - storm sighted


Discuss Tornado Watch/Warning

Watch-conditions favorable for tornado
Warning-likely a tornado exists.


Discuss Winter Storm Advisory

Possible snow or other winter conditions which could pose a threat to specific personnel, but not a large enough hazard to alert the general public


Discuss Winter Storm Watch/Warning

Watch-occurrence, location, time uncertain
Warning-imminent or occurring


Discuss Wind Shear

Rapidly changing wind speed and direction


Discuss Micro burst

Can cause aircraft to suddenly speed or slow, causing drop onto runway


Discuss SIGMET

Significant Meteorological Advisory:
Convective - thunderstorms
Non-Convective - turbulence, ice


Describe Lift

The force that pushes up on the airfoil


Describe Weight

The force that interacts with gravity to pull the aircraft down


Describe Drag

The resistance to motion


Describe Thrust

Force that pushes the aircraft along


Describe the Longitudinal Axis

The imaginary reference line that runs from the nose to the tail of an aircraft


Describe the Lateral Axis

The imaginary reference line that runs from one side to the concurrent other side of an aircraft


describe the Vertical Axis

The imaginary reference line that runs straight up and down through the top and bottom of an aircraft


State the three primary movements of aircraft about the axes

Roll, pitch and yaw


Identify and state the purpose of the primary flight controls for Fixed-Wing Aircraft

Yoke, throttle, rudder pedals, and some planes have flap levers, spoiler levers, trim controls and a tiller)


Identify and state the purpose of the primary flight controls for Rotary Wing Aircraft

Collective, cyclic, tail rotor pedals


State the purpose of Flaps

Gives aircraft extra lift


State the purpose of Spoilers

Used to decrease wing lift


State the purpose of Speed Brakes

Used to reduce the speed of aircraft


State the purpose of Slats

Attached to leading edge of wing for boundary layer control, increase/decrease angle of attack


State the purpose of the Horizontal Stabilizer

Stability of vertical and longitudinal axis, directional stability


State the purpose of the Vertical Stabilizer (what planes have on the tail)

Stability of longitudinal axis, directional stability


State the purpose of the Tail Rotor

Counteracts torque action of main rotor by producing thrust in opposite direction


State the purpose of the Trim Tabs

Located on the back of an elevator to keep the aircraft level


Explain the term Angle of Attack

The angle at which the airfoil encounters the air


Explain the term Autorotation

Using the main rotors as a parachute and trading Nr for Np. Let the air flow up through the main rotor to spin it quickly, then dump that speed by flaring close to the ground and set down much more gently than otherwise


State the components of a basic hydraulic system

Reservoir, pump, tubing, a selector valve, actuating unit to convert pressure into work


Describe and explain the main components of landing gear

Shock and strut assembly, tires, wheel brake assembly, retracting and extending mechanism (most planes and helos) side struts and supports, weight on wheels switch


State the safety precautions used when servicing aircraft tires (on the aircraft)

Approach from fore and aft (NEVER from the side), deflate carefully and deflate when removing from the aircraft. Tires are treated as ordnance.


Describe the Turbojet engine system

Projects a column of air to the rear for propulsion(F-18)


Describe a Turboshaft engine system

Delivers power to a driveshaft which in turn provides power to rotors or propulsion device (H-60)


Describe a Turboprop engine system

Engine powers a propeller which pulls aircraft through the air (C-130)


Describe a Turbofan engine system

Same as Turboprop except the propeller is replaced with an enclosed fan. Much safer than Turboprop and more efficient (P-8)


State the NATO symbols and explain the characteristics and reason for the use of JP-4

F-40. Never used on ships because of an overly low flash point (-10F). It's inefficient and has a flamespread rate between 700-800 feet per minute. Extremely volatile and very bad for engines.


Define the term flash point

Flash point describes the lowest temperature at which a fuel can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture with air.


State the NATO symbols and explain the characteristics and reason for the use of JP-5

F-44. Only fuel authorized for use aboard ships because its flash point is 140F (60C), the lowest flash point considered to be safe for naval vessels. Flamespread rate of 100fpm


State the NATO symbols and explain the characteristics and reason for the use of JP-8

F-34. Not authorized for use aboard ships because the flashpoint is 100F (40C). Acceptable for use on land, however, JP-5 is most preferred for naval aircraft. Flamespread rate of 100fpm


Describe the three hazards associated with aircraft refueling

1. Fuel sample must be good to go. If the first one is not, drain a gallon from the hose and take another sample. If that one is good, proceed to fueling. If it isn't, discontinue fueling.


Explain HERO conditions

Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance. HERO means turn off radios and transmitters when susceptible bombs are around because the electricity emitted could set them off. T-storms are especially dangerous in ordnance-prone areas. (302 ft)


Explain the purpose of the APU

Provide ground service and emergency power.


Discuss icing and its effects on the performance of naval aircraft

Frequent icing could damage actual components of the aircraft, and a large amount of ice could unbalance the aircraft and make it extremely difficult to control. It increases weight and drag, decreases efficiency, and reduces lift of rotors


State the purpose of the Pitot-Static Tube

Connects to the airspeed, altimeter and rate-of-climb calculators. Old-school backup system that was replaced by an actual computer because of a slight delay in information posting to the displays


State the purpose of the Airspeed Indicator

Displays speed of aircraft in relation to the air in which it's flying


State the purpose of the Altimeters

Tell you how far up you are, altitude


State the purpose of the Rate-of-climb

Tells you how fast you're moving either up or down


State the purpose of the Attitude Bank Indicator

Displays the relative position of the aircraft compared to the earth's horizon (tilt-meter)


State the purpose of the Turn and Bank Indicator

Tells you what degree you're rolling to (Angle of Bank)


State the purpose of the Navigation Systems

Marks your relative position on the globe


State the purpose of the IFF/SIF

Identification Friend or Foe/Selective Identification Feature-Programmed to transmit a certain "squawk" code that indicates whether or not the squawking aircraft is friendly, in distress, broken radios, etc.


State the purpose of the RADAR

Used to track developing weather and to keep an eye on aircraft and vessels


State the purpose of the Magnetic Compass

Tells you what direction you're heading. NESW


State the purpose of the Communication Systems

Ensures everyone is able to communicate with whoever they need to. Crew, swimmers, towers, base, downed aircrew, survivors, etc.


State the purpose of Bombs

Unguided explosives, not propelled, simply dropped.


State the purpose of the Rockets

Propelled bombs. Unguided, only go straight forward in the direction they're pointed


State the purpose of Missiles

Propelled, guided via laser, heat signature, optics, etc. Explode on contact.


State the purpose of Mines

Passive defense/attack system. Underwater mines are triggered by sound, magnetics or contact


State the purpose of Torpedoes

Underwater missiles fired by subs and boats. Both guided and unguided to targets


State the purpose of Chaff/Flares

Deterrent to radar/IR missiles fired at a target. Could keep you alive


State the purpose of Crew Served Weapons

Gau-21, M240D, etc. We get guns in self defense


Explain the purpose of a Fuse

Protective device designed to break in case of a surge of energy the electrical component can't handle. Instantly severs the electrical current and cannot be reset


State the purpose of a Circuit Breaker

Same as a fuse but they can be reset. Not a good idea to reset them too many times though.


Describe the three hazards associated with jet fuel

dirty fuel, ppe to protect from vapors/irritation, gravity refueling not authroized while rotors turning


State the difference between fixed-wing and rotor airfoils

FixedWing- mostly stationary and more cambered on the top and flat on the bottom.


Define an airfoil

shape of wing/rotor blade. air goes above and below, air on top of the airfoil speeds up and stretches out, it creates lower pressure, so the higher pressure underneath tries to move up toward the lower pressure on top of the airfoil and thus creates lift.