Flashcards in 10a Lifecycle Nutrition of Dogs 2 Deck (35):
When are dogs considered older?
- when they reach half their life expectancy
- large dogs 5 years old
- small dogs 7 years old
What are the nutrition goals for older dogs?
- optimization of quality and longevity of life
- minimization of disease
What are the major effects of aging on dog's body system?
- more vulnerable to diseases
- gradually gain weight
- development of age related physical and behavioural changes
- gain fat, lose muscle
Describe the water requirement of older dogs.
- more prone to dehydration
- possible osmoregulatory disturbances, medications, and chronic renal disease
- continuous access to clean fresh water supply
- water intake should be monitored
Describe the energy requirement of older dogs
- lean body mass decreases - less protein tissue
- subcutaneous fat increases
- BMR decreases
- body temp decreases
- less active
- 105kcal ME/BW^0.75
- very old dogs often underweight and can feed energy dense food
Describe protein requirements of older dogs.
- decrease in lean body mass
- higher protein intake than in younger adults
- when kidney function impaired, high protein may accelerate renal disease
Describe fat requirement for older dogs.
- low intake to reduce risk of obesity
- essential fatty acid requirements must be met
- very old dogs: higher fat intake to prevent loss of weight, increase palatability
Describe Ca and P requirements in older dogs.
- avoid excessive P intake as renal disease often present
- little concern about Ca deficiency in older dogs
- Ca:P is 1:1
What are some pros of fibre for older dogs?
- more prone to constipation
- fibre decreases postprandial glycemic effect in older diabetic dogs
- dilutes calories
What are some cons of fibre for older dogs?
- can impair digestion of other nutrients
- fibre dilutes calories
- very old dogs, less fibre to increase calorie density
- should be >= 2%
What are some goals of a good reproductive feeding program?
- optimize conception
- number of puppies per litter
- ability of the bitch to deliver
- viability of prenatal and neonatal puppies
- during delivery, must have enough glycogen for muscles around uterus to contract properly
Optimal nutrition of reproducing animals should precede what?
- mating and conception
- only healthy dogs in good nutritional state should be used
- malnutrition before breeding are often noticed until puppies are born
What is flushing?
- increase nutrient content of food to kick start gestation properly
How does food intake and body weight change through gestation and lactation?
- not massive increase in energy requirement during gestation (mom can easily compensate by eating more food)
- larger increase in 2nd part of gestation (increased fetal growth and placenta)
Describe the energy requirement during gestation.
- ME = MER + growth
Describe protein requirement during gestation
-protein and amino acid requirement for reproduction not well defined
- high protein quality = increased visor of newborn puppies, decreased neonatal mortality
What would happen with a protein deficiency during pregnancy?
- decreased birth weight
- increased mortality during first 48h of life
- decreased immunocompetence
Describe fat requirement during gestation.
- increasing fat levels increases digestibility, energy provision and nitrogen retention
- how much fat is in diet depends on litter size, body condition, food intake, giant breed bitches need high energy throughout gestation
Describe carb requirement during gestation.
- needs carbs
- high metabolic requirement for glucose
What would happen if bitch was fed carb free food during gestation?
- increased weight loss, decreased food intake, decreased birthweight of puppies, decreased neonatal survival of puppies, increased risk of stillbirth, increased risk of hypoglycaemia and ketosis during late pregnancy, decreased lactose concentration in milk
- recommend 20% of energy from carbs
- if no carbs, protein intake must double for gluconeogenesis
Describe the Ca and P requirement during gestation
- during last 5 weeks of gestation, Ca and P requirements increase by 60% for skeletal development
- ratio of 1.1 to 1.5:1
What will excessive Ca do during pregnancy?
- decreased activity of parathyroid glands
- predispose to eclampsia during lactation
Describe iron requirements during gestation.
- Fe requirements very high during last week of gestation
- Fetuses store iron in liver
- colostrum is very rich in Fe
Describe zinc requirement during gestation
- must be adequate
- deficiencies may lead to fetal resorption or fewer, less viable offspring
During lactation, what are nutrient requirements directly related to?
- milk production
- number of puppies
Describe water requirement during lactation?
- first nutrient needed for lactation
- water requirement in mL = energy requirement in kcal
- needs to be available at all times
Describe energy requirement during lactation.
- energy requirements: maintenance + milk production
- energy intake usually limiting factor for meeting energy requirement
- energy density too low physical limitation to eat enough food
- maintenance requirement slightly higher than for average adult dogs because more protein synthesis per unit BW
- ME = 145 kcal/BW^0.75+BW x (24n +12m) x L
How is the energy for milk production estimated?
- gross energy of milk
- efficiency of converting maternal energy into milk energy
- quantity of milk produced daily
Milk production is directly related to what 2 things?
- litter size
- stage of lactation (more milk during mid than late lactation)
Describe protein requirement during lactation.
- requirement for protein increases more than requirement for energy
- protein-energy ratio must be higher in foods than for adult maintenance
- protein linked to energy
Describe fat requirement during lactation.
- increase energy density of food
- milk fat and fatty acid composition very variable (increasing fat from 12-20% DM increases fat in milk by 30%)
Describe carb requirement during lactation.
- bitches need carbs for lactose production
- if no carbs, milk lactose 2%
- protein seems not to correct lactose levels
- recommend 10-20% of energy intake in form of soluble carbs
Describe Ca and P requirement during lactation.
- mineral requirements during lactation determined by mineral excretion in milk
Describe iron requirement during lactation.
- requirement only slightly increased during lactation
- mature milk low in FE
- colostrum rich in Fe