11b Wellness Food Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11b Wellness Food Deck (20):

What is 'wellness'?

1. a healthy balance of the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well being
2. the condition of good physical, mental and emotional health, especially when maintained by an appropriate diet, exercise and other lifestyle modifications


What are some wellness concerns?

- like humans, pets are also living longer
- health concerns such as arthritis, diabetes, digestion, intestinal health, eye disease, vision deterioration, osteoporosis
- aging pet population has created demand for natural supplements that targets pets physiological needs


What are some general characteristics of wellness food?

- - may be complete diet or supplements and treats
- may promote well being, health and longevity
- prevention but not curing or treatment of any acute condition or specific health event
- very costly
- difference between good healthy diet and wellness diet is hard to define


Describe the market and opportunities for wellness food?

- large population of pets and increasing numbers of senior pets
- health of animal is direct function of its nutritional status
- concepts in nutrition expanding
- high priced pet foods will be market driver
- provides golden opportunity for natural product retailers offering pet products to increase sales to customers


What are 2 types of functional food

- prebiotics
- probiotics



- a non digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon
- inulin type fructans
- functions: large bowel health, reducing disease risk such as constipation or risk of obesity/type2 diabetes



- nutrition + pharmaceutical
- any substance that is considered a food, a part of a food, a vitamin, a mineral or an herb that provides health benefits, including disease prevention or treatment
- substances produced in a purified or extracted form and administered orally to patients to provide agents required for normal body structure and function, administered with the intent of improving the health and well being of animals
- underpin effects with solid scientific foundation but still, beyond a direct nutritional effect


Maintaining eye health

- cataracts are leading cause of low vision among older dogs and rarely, cats
- natural supplements can help maintain ocular function and decrease risk of vision loss
- carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin (spinach, kale, yellow carrots)
- vitamin C, E
- lycopene
- zinc
- flavenoids (bilberry, black current, green tea)
- omega 3 fatty acids, DHA and EPA


Support skin coat and health

- skin sensitive to inappropriate dietary levels of essential fatty acids
- EFA deficiency causes congenital deficiency of hair, loss of hair and scaly skin
- most pet foods supply omega 6 but not omega 3
- fish oil and other marine sources contain high levels of EPA and DHA, omega 3 capable of modifying inflammatory skin responses in healthy dogs
- flaxseed oil
- salmon oil


Aging brain -> promoting thinking and memory

- pets lose sharpness of higher level functions of memory and cognition as they age
- during aging, brain gradually loses its essential characteristics (continuous action, plasticity and redundancy)
- dogs can develop canine cognitive dysfunction (CDS),a memory related disorder similar to Alzheimers that results in forgetfulness, disorientation, no longer recognizing family members
- supplements formulated to improve cognitive function and learning in older animals by helping boost neurotransmitter function, promoting circulation and reducing negative effects of external stressors
- PS, inositol, omega 3 (EPA and DHA), vitamins A C E, minerals copper, zinc and selenium



- natural occurring phospholipid present in biological membranes
- particularly enriched in brain
- can be synthesized from phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine
- can be made in body/brain but requires large energy expenditure
- PS associated with important membrane proteins


What are 4 considerations about PS?

1. bioavailability and safety (5g/kg)
2. mechanism of action (activation of membrane bound proteins; key role in conduction of nerve stimulus and response via neurotransmitter biosynthesis and release)
3. any concerns? (BSE for original extraction from bovine brain)
4. specific effects (nootropic action in experimental animal studies; clinical trials in humans; clinical trials in dogs)


Maintaining healthy joint function

- large % of dogs can benefit from natural joint support supplements (older dogs suffer from arthritis or hip dysplasia)
- NSAIDS not without negative side effects
- natural chondoprotective supplements help to maintain healthy connective tissue and support joint function
- key ingredients: glucosamine and chondroitin. MSM, green lipped mussel, hyaluronic acid, collagen type 2
- because of their anti inflammatory properties in joint support products (capsaicin, boswella, yucca, omega 3)



- to assess the ability of functional foods or their bioactive components
- almost any measurement that reflects a change in a biochemical process, structure or function that results from an interaction between a biological system and an environmental agent, including a dietary component


What are some examples of using biomarkers?

- measurement of arthritic and bone serum metabolites in arthritic, non arthritic and geriatric dogs fed wellness foods
- biomarkers of selenium status in dogs for early screening of long term effects of dietary Se provision on canine health


What are some biomarkers of arthritis?

- matrix metalloproteinase 13
- amino-terminal crosslinked telopeptide
- type 2 collagen synthesis
- bone specific alkaline phosphatase


What are some biomarkers of selenium status?

- urinary Se to creatine ratio
- serum Se and serum
- whole blood glutathione peroxidase


Describe some interactions among nutrients.

- interactions among dietary constituents may contribute to the inconsistent relations observed between specific dietary constituents and the incidence of disease
- vitamin C has been reported to reduce selenium's effectiveness
- selenium has been shown to enhance ability of garlic


Describe effect of processing

- influence the availability of nutrients either positively or negatively
- lycopene bioavailability was improved by heating tomato preparations in the presence of oil
- boiling garlic for 15 min markedly reduced its ability to inhibit thromboxane B2 synthesis
- heating of garlic in a microwave or conventional oven before peeling can dramatically reduce its ability to alter the bioactivation of a carcinogen


Natural and organic pet foods

- organic farmland increased by 300% since 1999
- motives: food safety, healthiness and high quality, tasty
- conventionally produced food has similar nutritional content to organic crops
- controversial
- health benefits difficult to test because have to feed long term