10c Ingredients in Petfoods 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10c Ingredients in Petfoods 2 Deck (26):

What are some ingredient categories for nutritional value?

- mineral and vitamin supplements
- chondroprotective agents, antioxidants
- probiotics, enzymes
- herbs and botanicals
- prebiotics


What are some ingredient categories for technical or non nutritive effects?

- preservatives
- flavours and extracts
- colours


dicalcium phosphate.

- obtained from degreased bones which are demineralized by hydrochloric acid treatment and precipitated by saturated lime solution
- to provide minerals Ca and P (strong bones and teeth, Ca regulates heartbeat and other muscle contractions, phosphorous plays role in body's energy production)
- too much Ca inhibits absorption of other nutrients and may lead to kidney stones
- elimination of CNA is critical due to BSE


Why were vitamin and mineral premixes developed?

- to ensure animal receives proper amounts
- need to mix very well or may cause excess or deficiency of certain vitamins or minerals


What is bioavailability and give example?

how much of a nutrient can be used by the animal to support metabolic functions
- oxides poorly available, sulphate better available


What kind of bioavailability data do we have?

- swine data base
- companion animal data sorely lacking


What is another limitation for bioavailability?

- phytate = complex compound that binds P, other minerals and even starch
- thus, P digestibility is low in plant products


sodium chloride

- AAFCO recommends 0.3% sodium for dogs and 0.2% sodium for cats for normal growth and development
- too much sodium: increased thirst, swelling in body which puts strain on circulatory system and kidneys, vomiting diarrhea and seizures may indicate sodium ion poisoning
- too little salt can cause life threatening dehydration



- precursor of cysteine which can then be converted into taurine
- can be converted into glutathione, an important physiological antioxidant
- urinary acidifier to prevent UTIs and bladder stones
- important for skin and coat condition, eye health, heart health and more
- vitally important to long term health of dog and cat
- side effects loss of appetite, vomiting or diarrhea



- sometimes called amino acid, and is am amino containing acid, but not AA is usually biochemical meaning
- exclusively found in animal based proteins
- absent in cereal grains
- essential for cat
- fundamental biological roles: conjugation of bile acids, anti oxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization and modulation of calcium signalling
- critical for normal vision, normal digestion, normal heart muscle function, to maintain normal pregnancy and fetal development and to maintain healthy immune system


choline chloride

- to supply choline
- methyl donor in reactions involving methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, glycine and serine
- key component of cell membrane phospholipids
- vital part of neurotransmitter molecule acetylcholine
- lipotropic agent in fat utilization and lipid signalling
- deficiency: results in weight loss, vomiting, fatty liver and even death
- hygroscopic


chondroprotective agents

- retard degradation of cartilage
- promote chondrocyte metabolism in the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs and cats
- widespread inclusion for healthy pets may not be warranted
- glucosamine: derived from hydrolysis of chitin, found in crab and shrimp shells in hydrochloride form; also in sulfated form chondroitin sulphate



- reduce oxidative damage, free radical formation (cats appear more prone to oxidative injury)
- vitamin E: protects lipid rich cell membrane, essential because cannot be synthesized in body
- vitamin C non essential
- mineral dependent antioxidants: trace minerals, selenium, copper, zinc, manganese
- beta carotene and other carotenoids (precursor for vitamin A in dogs but not cats)
- S-adenosylmethionine (SAM): precursor of glutathione, support liver function



- direct-fed microbial (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, aspergillus, influence gut flora to compete against salmonella and e.coli)
- promoting intestinal health
- dogs and cats prone to digestive sensitivity like soft stool or diarrhea may benefit from food containing prebiotics and probiotics
- enzymes like phytase but rarely used in pet food
- sensitive to loss due to processing and storage


herbs and botanicals

- whole form, to provide macronutrients (minor)
- to provide flavour (major)
- pharmacologic rather than nutritional function
- potential safety concern


L carnitine

- transports long chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, so they can be broken down through beta-oxidation to acetyl CoA to obtain usable energy via citric cycle


yucca schidigera extracts

reduce feces odour



- fructooligosaccharides (extracted from blue agave plant and fruits or veg such as bananas, onions, chicory root, some grains and cereals such as wheat and barley)
- resistant starch
- basically any carbohydrate that is not digested but fermented
- among these, a wide range of fermentation characteristics exist (aim for increased fermentation in upper or lower digestive tract)


What are some preservations?

- ethoxyquin
- propylene glycol
- others (tocopherols, BHA)



- antioxidant, reduce degradation of fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
- fish meal, vitamin premixes
- watch upper same limit 75 ppm


propylene glycol

- hygroscopic, to retain moisture, useful for semi moist food
- may cause oxidative damage
- prohibited from use in cat food



extracted from plants
- natural preservative


flavours and extracts

- digests (hydrolyses of animal tissues)
- other natural flavours (dairy, eggs, herbs, spices)
- artificial flavours (various synthetic compounds)



- non certified
- from natural sources (spices, fruit, veg, caramel)
- synthetically derived (iron oxide or titanium oxide)


Other additives

- facilitate manufacturing processes and affect stability or form of food (dust control agents, lubricants, emulsifiers, gums)
- sequestrates such as sodium hexametaphosphate (sequestering minerals to form chelate complexes, prevent mineralization of dental plaque to form calculi)



USDA reported finding white granular melamine in the recalled pet food, in samples of white granular wheat gluten imported from China, as well as in crystalline form in kidneys and urine of affected animals