7a Nutrient Requirements of Cats Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7a Nutrient Requirements of Cats Deck (52):
1

What is the definition of adult cats?

- reach adulthood within 10-12 months
- senior >7
- young to middle age 1-7

2

What are some general feeding goals?

- health longevity
- quality of life
- disease prevention

3

What are 3 things that affect water requirements?

1. diet composition (DM content, protein, sodium)
2. highly concentrated urine
3. physiologic and environmental conditions

4

What are the 3 main ways how cats at maintenance will lose body water?

urine, feces, respiration

5

What is the recommended amount of water intake?

1mL per kcal ME

6

How do moist food affect water intake?

- increases water intake and urine volume

7

What can water help prevent?

- urinary problems
- struvite
- calcium oxalate

8

What are the 5 things that energy requirements depend on?

- gender and neuter status
- activity level
- age
- environment
- breed

9

What is the thermoneutral zone of cats?

35-38 C
- higher than humans (18-21)

10

Dietary thermogenesis uses how much ME?

10%

11

How much do the body weights of cats differ?

2-7kg

12

What is the most accurate interspecies metabolic body weight for cats?

BW^0.67

13

How much can energy requirements vary in cats?

50%

14

What is the MER equation for lean domestic cats?

100 kcal ME x kg BW^0.67

15

How do these numbers compare to dogs?

?

16

What might be reasons for the range in exotic cats?

- size difference?
- activity difference?

17

What is the BCS of an ideal cat and how is it described?

5
- well proportioned
- waist observed behind ribs
- ribs palpable with slight fat covering
- abdominal fat pad minimal

18

What is the range of BCS scores for adult cats?

1-9

19

Describe the capacity of cats for digestible carbs.

- toxicity with as little as 5.6g galactose/kg
- low adaptation of disaccharidases at brush border
- safe upper limits of selected CHOs
- lactase activity decreases with age
- no known optimal starch inclusion level

20

Do cats require dietary fibre? Why?

no
- short GI tract
- no functioning cecum

21

Why is a small amount of fibre recommended?

- stool bulking
- helps things move along
- butyrate preferential for colonocytes
- can help reduce hairballs

22

How much fibre is recommended?

less than or equal to 5%

23

What is fibre in some cat foods used for?

- weight management

24

Why is meeting minimal protein requirements critical?

- increased requirement for nitrogen because can't down regulate enzymes for protein catabolism or urea cycle

25

What 3 things is protein in excess catabolized for?

1. energy
2. gluconeogenesis
3. excess energy stored as fat

26

Why should protein derive from animal tissues?

- need arginine and taurine
- plant protein does not have correct profile of these AAs

27

Why is the endogenous urinary N excretion when fed a protein free diet in cats significantly higher than in other animals?

- cats support a higher N requirement than other species
- however, efficiency of utilization of protein is lower in cats due to lack of ability to conserve nitrogen and essential amino acids

28

Describe the nitrogen balance in cats compared to other species.

no clear plateau as intake of protein increases

29

Why are the protein recommendations for domestic cats so much lower than what feral cats actually eat?

- pets consume high quality digestible protein
- feral cats ingest low quality, low bioavailability protein

30

What are the functions of fat for cats?

- energy source
- fat soluble vitamins
- palatability

31

What are the 3 essential fatty acids for cats?

- linoleic
- arachidonic
- alpha-linolenic (EPA/DHA)

32

What percentage is a cat's ability to digest fat?

84-99%

33

What effects can occur with lipid oxidation and how can it be prevented ?

- feline pansteatitis
- yellow fat disease
- feed high levels of vitamin E with high levels of poly unsaturated fatty acids to prevent oxidative damage

34

Describe vitamin A requirement.

- can't convert beta carotene to vitamin A
- liver main storage site

35

Describe vitamin D requirement.

- low concentrations of 7-dehydrocholesterol

36

How can calcium deficiency occur?

- cats eating non supplemented meat (like bone meal)

37

What can P excess cause?

- lower urinary tract and renal disease

38

What is the recommended Ca:P ratio for cats?

0.9-1.1 : 1

39

What is the Mg requirement and why?

less than 1g/kg of diet
- prevent FLUTD

40

What can excess Mg cause?

- struvite crystals
- depends on urinary pH (occurs at high pH)

41

Describe the importance of urinary pH.

- increased pH related to increase in cations
- negative cation/anion balance = acidosis
- struvites reduced at pH < 6.5
- metabolic acidosis <6, and risk of calcium oxalate

42

What is the ideal urinary pH in cat?

6.2-6.4

43

How can urinary pH be controlled?

- free choice better than meals

44

What are some behavioural, physical and metabolic changes that occur in older cats?

- less active
- decreased lean body mass
- decreased basal metabolic rate
- decreased digestive function, immune response, glucose tolerance, renal function
- less adaptable to perturbations

45

What nutritional modification is needed to slow down aging and why is this difficult to achieve?

- decreased caloric intake
- adequate amounts of other nutrients
- increase in feed intake often accompanies increase in calories and nutrients

46

How does water requirements change in older cats?

- impaired thirst sensitivity
- decline in renal function (incapability to concentrate urine)
- reduced ability to thermoregulate
- change from dry to moist food

47

What do very old cats need with regards to energy requirement?

- weight loss so need energy dense diet
- significant reduction in fat digestibility

48

What are the protein requirements of older cats?

- reduction in lean body madd
- older cats need more protein than young cats to maintain lean tissue and maintain weight

49

What is the fat requirement of older cats?

- risk of death increases 3 fold in obese fats
- so feed moderate to low levels of highly digestible fat

50

What is the fibre requirement of cats?

- constipation is common in older cats
- fiber <5% can help
- >10% fibre can reduce nutrient digestibility

51

What are the Ca and P requirements of older cats?

- bone mass declines
- moderate levels of Ca to maintain bone
- reduce P since 30% of cats have kidney disease

52

Describe urinary pH in older cats.

- reduced ability to compensate for acid-base alterations from diet
- food with less acidifying potential to avoid metabolic acidosis
- safe pH 6.2-6.5