10b Ingredients in Petfoods 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10b Ingredients in Petfoods 1 Deck (26):

What might be an important reason to look into the ingredient composition of pet food?

- bioavailability
- ANFs
- palatability
- species differences


What are some ingredient characteristics?

- nutrient characteristics (total content known, bioavailability generally poorly described)
- functional characteristics
- feed processing characteristics (dry food must extrude well and keep shape)
- taste characteristics
- colour characteristics


What are the 3 types of food forms?

1. dry: 10-12% moisture, dry- expanded, meal, pelleted and kibbled; cat extruded only
2. semi moist: 25-35% moisture, same but more meat or meat by products and water, soft expanded
3. canned: 74-78% moisture, cat market expanding, dog market shrinking, 25-75% meat or meat by products


Describe ingredients of animal origin.

- large range in quality
- ranging from meat to co product from slaughter plants
- off grade for human consumption can still be a perfectly valid and safe pet food


Describe ingredients of plant origin.

- expect more in dog than cat diets
- but surprisingly cats can tolerate important quantities of plant products


What are some concerns for ingredients of anima origin?

- pathogens like BSE


What are some concerns with ingredients of plant origin?

- protein content less
- protein less quality
- if high fibre, may dilute energy density
- mycotoxins


Brewer's Rice

- dried, extracted co product of rice from the manufacture of wort or beer; may contain pulverized dried spent hops in an amount not to exceed 3%
- nutritional composition depends on source and processing
- broken rice very different from brewers grain
- concern: toxin


poultry by-product meal.

- consists of ground rendered clean parts of the carcass of slaughtered poultry such as necks, feet, undeveloped eggs, intestine, exclusive of feathers
- concern: food safety or variable outcomes of bone and fat


How can lysine be damaged?

- heat treated ingredients
- lysine digestibility does not equal lysine availability
- measured in vivo using growth trial


corn gluten meal.

- dried residue from corn after the removal of the larger part of the starch and germ, and the separation of the bran by the process employed in the wet milling manufacture of corn starch or syrup, or by enzymatic treatment of the endosperm
- concern: co product; reduced protein quality as from plant



- pulse crop (non oilseed legume)
- includes field pea
- pulses also used in cat food
- concern: antinutritional factor


spray-dried cooked liver.

- spray dried cooked chicken liver produced from USDA inspected facilities using chicken livers that are ground, cooked, and spray dried
- spray dried pork liver is pork liver from USDA inspected facilities that undergoes a solubilization process at a regulated temperature, time and pH, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, pasteurization and spray drying
- specialty protein source


fish meal.

- high quality protein
- clean, dried, ground tissue of undecompoased whole fish or fish cuttings with or without extraction of part of oil
- must not contain more than 10% moisture
- if contains more than 3% salt, amount of salt must constitute a part of the product name
- omega 3 fatty acids
- concerns: mercury, sustainability, ethoxyquin


powdered cellulose.

- high levels of cellulose
- purified, mechanically disintegrated cellulose prepared by processing alpha cellulose obtained as a pulp from fibrous plant materials
- weight management, diabetes and hairball control
- in weight control diets, the virtual indigestibility of cellulose translates into negligible food energy contribution (ME basically 0)
- basically an expensive filler
- concern: indigestible



- small grain
- fifth major staple cereal after wheat, rice, maize and barley
- cultivated worldwide in warmer climates
- important food crop in semi arid tropical areas of Africa
- temperature grain sorghum hybrids suitable for southwestern Ontario climatic conditions with grain yields of over 5 tons/ha
- concern: ANF, bitter taste


soybean hulls.

- consist primarily of the outer covering of the soybean
- fermentable; sugar beet pulp would be more fermentable
- important for stool quality
- concern: indigestible


Poultry fat

- low price energy source
- primarily obtained from tissue of poultry in commercial process of rendering or extracting
- contains fatty matter natural to the product produced under good manufacturing practices and shall contain no added free fatty acids or other materials obtained from fat
- contains at least 90% total fatty acids and maximum 3% impurities
- regular pet feed stuff


powdered egg albumin

- egg waste comes from egg processing facilities
- egg white >90% water, sticky, binding agent in pet food
- very high quality protein source
- no fat
- lactose free
- may contain dangerous pathogens like Salmonella


powdered egg

- fully dehydrated eggs
- high quality protein source
- egg yolks contain immunoglobulin Y (supports immune system of dogs)
- improve texture of dog food


brewer's yeast

- by product of brewing beer
- inactivated, non living dried yet (otherwise would cause severe gastrointestinal problem)
- protein source
- B vitamin source
- help fight bacteria that cause infections in intestine
- help relieve diarrhea


fish oil

- high quality oil
- omega 3 fatty acids
- not regular pet feed stuff


Describe the kinetics of starch digestion

- tapioca, wheat and sorghum are digested very fast
- potato starch is very hard to digest and takes a really long time
- non digested peas and phaseolus bean serves as fermentable CHO


How does the digestibility of starch affect blood glucose levels?

- highly digestible = high blood glucose
- different starches have either high or low glycemic indices
- starch not digested acts like fibre


What are some factors to consider with starch?

- starch origin (grain pulse tuber, amylose vs amylopectin, protein starch matrix)
- resistant starch
- processing (high moisture and temp, gelatinization and retrogradation, influence RS formation)


How can you determine which types of fibre is most fermentable?

- measure gas production