2a Digestive Physiology - Dog and Cat Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2a Digestive Physiology - Dog and Cat Deck (58):
1

What are some functions of the GI tract?

- digestion
- nutrient and water absorption
- immune function
- secretion
- excretion
- vitamin and mineral balance

2

What is the main difference between the gastrointestinal tract of a dog and cat?

length

3

What is the body length, SI and LI length of a dog?

- body length: 0.75m
- SI: 3.9m
- LI: 0.6m

4

What is the body length, SI and LI length of a cat?

- body length: 0.5m
- SI: 1.7m
- LI: 0.4m

5

What are the 4 structures used to increase gut capacity relative to body weight?

- villi
- microvilli
- coils
- folds

6

What does intestinal length influence?

- retention time of food in the gut

7

What kind of diet does the dog have?

omnivorous

8

What kind of diet does the cat have?

carnivorous

9

For what macronutrients does the lowest capacity exist to digest?

fiber

10

What is the consequence for fermentation?

- digestion of finer
- VFA production
- microbial protein

11

What does the smell and presence of food stimulate?

the salivary glands to produce saliva

12

What are the 4 pairs of salivary glands?

- parotid
- mandibular
- sublingual
- zygomatic

13

What affects the saliva amount and composition?

type of food ingested and its moisture content

14

What do dog and cat saliva lack?

salivary amylase to digest starch

15

Why is the function of saliva important?

- aids in mixing of food and lubrication as many dogs and cats swallow with minimal chewing

16

What is another important function of saliva for dogs?

- evaporative cooling

17

What kind of teeth do dogs have?

- cutting canine teeth for ripping and tearing
- large molars and premolars can grind and chew large or tough pieces of food

18

What kind of teeth do cats have?

- teeth suited for holding and killing small prey animals
- less efficient in chewing and grinding

19

What is the esophagus?

- short hollow muscular tube
- uses peristalsis to move food

20

How does the cell lining of the esophagus help?

- produces mucus

21

What is at the base of the stomach?

- cardiac sphincter
- prevents reflux of food from stomach to lower esophagus

22

What is the stomach and its function?

- a food reservoir that mixes food, regulates flow of digesta to the SI and initiates chemical digestion of protein

23

What is the point of chemical digestion in the stomach?

disrupt 3D structure of food (proteins)
- no digestion of carbs and fats

24

What 2 sections is the stomach divided into?

- proximal and distal sections

25

What is one function of the proximal stomach in dogs?

- proximal expands during temporary food storage allowing dog to eat discrete meals

26

What is gastric secretion influenced by?

- the amount of protein in the meal, the meal volume and hormones

27

What does gastric pH depend on?

- varies depending on the type of meal consumed (buffering capacity of the food)

28

What 4 things is gastric emptying rate controlled by?

- stomach volume
- body weight
- water intake
- diet type

29

Do high density or smaller particles empty more slowly?

high density

30

What is hormonal control of gastric emptying based on?

- maconutrient composition and characteristics

31

What is the average half emptying times for dogs?

72-240 min

32

What is the average half emptying time for cats?

22-449 min

33

What is the role of soluble fibre?

- increases viscosity which slows flow of digesta from stomach to small intestine

34

How is a cat stomach different from a dog stomach?

- cat stomach less important as storage reservoir
- cat stomach simpler and smaller with smaller glandular funds

35

What is the function of the small intestine?

- chemical digestion and absorption of fat, starch, sugar and protein
- acidic chyme stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice which increases pH of digesta
- chyme missed with enzymes from duodenal mucosa and pancreas
- mechanical digestion through peristalsis
- villi increase surface area

36

What are the functions of the pancreas?

- exocrine: secretes inactive enzymes and bicarbonate salts into gut
- endocrine: secrete hormones into the blood

37

What is the function of the liver?

- production of bile which is stored in gall bladder
- bile released when chyme enters SI (gall bladder contracts)
- emulsifies dietary fat and activate enzymes to aid in fat digestion
- portal vein runs from gut to liver

38

Describe the small intestinal microbiology.

- dog has a simple microbial population
- cats may have a greater amount of bacteria
- role in preventing pathogenic microbes from colonizing

39

How can transit time of digesta be measured?

- indigestible markers such as chromic oxide

40

How do sugar transport systems in the dog and cat differ?

- cat: sugar transport systems not adaptive to varying levels of dietary carbohydrate
- cat amylase about 5% of that in dogs
- amino acid transporters in cat are highly adaptable
- dog sugar transport systems are highly adaptive to dietary carbohydrates

41

What are the functions of the large intestine?

- absorption of water and electrolytes
- fermentation of dietary fibre and undigested nutrients from the SI

42

Does the large intestine contain villi?

- no

43

What are the 3 parts of the large intestine?

- cecum, colon, rectum

44

What is excreted cecal matter made up of?

- undigested food, sloughed cells, bacteria and endogenous losses
- can change depending on type of diet

45

What does bacterial fermentation produce?

- SCFA, lactate, CO2 and hydrogen gas

46

How is the GI tract controlled?

- nutrient flow from intestine to portal vein functions to control enzymes, nutrient transporters, persitalsis

47

What are the 3 mechanisms of GI control?

- incretins
- pancreas (enzymes, hormones, bicarbonate)
- nervous system

48

What are incretins?

- gastrointestinal hormones

49

What is GIP's cell type?

K

50

What is GIP's location of action?

duodenum, jejunum and ileum

51

What is GIP's primary stimulatory and inhibitory action?

- stimulates: insulin secretion and synthesis
- inhibits: gastric acid secretion, gastric and small intestine mobility

52

What is GIP's stimulus for secretion?

- glucose, AAs and FAs in small intestine
- somatostatin regulates release

53

What is CCK's cell type?

I

54

What is CCK's location of action?

duodenum and jejunum

55

What is CCK's primary stimulatory and inhibitory action?

- stimulates: pancreatic enzyme secretion and gall bladder contraction
- inhibits: gastric emptying and secretion and relaxes sphincter of Oddi

56

What is CCK's stimulus for secretion?

- peptides, AAs and FAs in duodenum

57

What is the function of taste and nutrient receptors?

control of intake

58

What is the outcome of control of digested nutrients?

- nutrient utilization and deposition
- satiety
- feed intake and feeding behaviour