3a Review of Nutrients 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3a Review of Nutrients 2 Deck (46):
1

How much water is in the body?

40-80%

2

What are the 3 main sources of water?

- drinking water
- water in food
- metabolism

3

How is water produced in metabolism?

- glucose oxidation
- carbon dioxide and water released

4

What are the 5 main losses of water?

- urine
- feces
- respiration
- sweat
- milk

5

What are the largest and 2nd largest losses of water?

1. urine (75-85%)
2. feces

6

Why do cats produce more concentrated urine?

- originated from desert
- water conservation

7

What are the 4 main functions of water?

- solvent in which substances are dissolved and transported (ion balance, transport, eliminate waste products)
- necessary for chemical reactions that involve hydrolysis
- regulation of body temperature (evaporative cooling like panting)
- provides shape and resilience to body

8

What 2 systems regulate the amount of water in the body?

- neural and endocrine

9

What is dehydration?

lack of water in body tissue

10

How much water loss needs to occur to be thirsty?

>1%

11

What is water intoxication called?

hydremia

12

What happens to body cells during dehydration?

- cells shrink and die

13

What are the 6 main things that define a vitamin

- required in very small amounts
- not metabolic fuels or structural nutrients
- involved in fundamental functions of the body
- regulators of reactions (catalysts)
- absence must cause a deficiency syndrome
- not synthesized in sufficient quantities to support normal physiologic function

14

How many water and fat soluble vitamins are there in humans?

- 10 water soluble
- 4 fat soluble

15

What vitamin is essential in only in primates, guinea pigs and fish?

vitamin C

16

How many fat and water soluble vitamins are there for dogs?

- 3 fat soluble (ADE)
- 8 water soluble

17

How many water and fat soluble vitamins are there in cats?

- 4 fat soluble (ADEK)
- 9 water soluble

18

What are some examples of water soluble vitamins?

- niacin
- biotin
- choline
- folic acid
- riboflavin
- ascorbic acid

19

What water soluble vitamin is not needed by dogs or cats?

ascorbic acid

20

What water soluble vitamin is not required by dog, but required by cat?

niacin

21

What are some physiological functions of vitamins and which vitamin?

- co factors in enzymatic reactions (B)
- DNA synthesis (folacin)
- bone development (D)
- Ca homeostasis (D)
- eye function (A)
- cell membrane integrity (E and C)
- blood clotting (K)
- free radical scavenging (E and B12)
- amino acid and protein metabolism (niacin)
- nerve impulse transduction (choline)

22

What are some important vitamin interactions?

- critical pathways require concerted action of several B complex vitamins (deficiency of one compromises efficiency of other 3)
- multiple vitamin deficiencies more frequent than single vitamin defences

23

How are fat soluble vitamins absorbed?

- require bile salts and fat to form micelles for absorption
- passively absorbed, mainly in duodenum and ileum
- transported in conjunction with chylomicrons to liver via lymph system

24

How are water soluble vitamins absorbed?

- active transport
- some require carrier protein called intrinsic factor
- sodium dependent, carrier mediated absorption pump

25

How are vitamins generally provided in the diet?

- vitamin premix
- organ meat rich in fat soluble vitamin

26

What is a provitamin?

- compound that requires an activation step before it becomes biologically active

27

What is an example of a provitamin?

- beta carotene cleaved by enzymatic processes releases 2 molecules of retinol
- cats need to be provided retinol as they do not have the enzymatic path

28

What is a vitamer?

- chemically the same compound as a vitamin
- may exert varying physiologic effects because it is an isomer
- e.g. alpha tocopherol vs gamma tocopherol

29

What is a stereoisomer

- differ in arrangement of groups around stereocenters
- RRR-alpha tocopherol is most biologically active

30

What is a vitamin like substance?

- exhibit properties similar to vitamins
- have physiologic functionality but questionable essentiality (conditionally essential)
- L carnitine

31

What are minerals?

inorganic elemental atoms that are essential nutrients

32

How many mineral elements are essential for mammals?

greater than 18

33

What are some macro minerals and how much per kg of diet needed?

- g/kg
- Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S

34

What are some trace elements and how much per kg of diet needed?

- mg/kg
- Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Mb, F, Se, I, Cr

35

What are some ultra trace elements and how much per kg of diet needed?

- ug/kg
- Mo, As, B, Ni, Si, V

36

What are the 3 main functions of minerals?

- structural components of body organs and tissues
- constituents of body fluids and tissues (electrolytes)
- catalysts/cofactors in enzyme and hormone systems

37

What are 3 methods of mineral homeostatic regulation?

- maintaining of mineral concentrations at active sites in narrow physiologic limits despite over or under ingestion
- control of intestinal absorption and excretion
- urinary excretion

38

What are 5 factors that influence mineral bioavailability?

- chemical form (mineral solubility)
- other dietary components that interact metabolically
- age, gender and species of animal
- intake of mineral and the need (body stores)
- environmental factors (organic versus inorganic minerals)

39

Are meat derived or plant derived minerals for available? why?

- meat more available
- physic acid in plant tissues are bound to minerals and cannot be released

40

What are some sources of Ca?

bone, meat meals, inorganic sources

41

What are some sources of phosphorous?

- meat, oil seeds, grains, inorganic sources

42

What are some sources of magnesium?

- meat meal, oilseeds, grains, inorganic sources

43

What are some sources of trace elements?

inorganic sources

44

Are trace element sulphites, chlorides, carbonates or oxides most available?

- sulfate, chloride > carbonates > oxides

45

What is the 'meat factor'?

- provides an available form of mineral
- enhances absorption of the mineral supplied by the rest of the food

46

Are organic or inorganic minerals more available?

- organic
- possibly because mineral complexed or bound