9b Lifecycle Nutrition of Dogs 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9b Lifecycle Nutrition of Dogs 1 Deck (30):

What kind of puppies are more premature at birth?

- large breed
- more susceptible to malnutrition


What are the 3 critical phases during first year of life?

- nursing phase
- weaning period
- post weaning period


What is the mortality rate during first week of life and why?

- 10-30%
- birth weight highly correlated to mortality because low nutrition intake
- daily weighing


Describe the body temp of puppies at birth.

- poikilothermic during first 3 weeks
- low level of body fat
- unable to regulate body temp
- bitch may push puppy away or neglect it with low skin temp


Describe the requirement for colostrum.

- secreted within 24-48h after birth
- high DM content: viscous and sticky, suckling difficult for weak puppies
- DM content decreases 12-24 hours after birth (protein decrease)


Describe the nutrient content of colostrum.

- twice as much protein as mature milk (IgG, whereas normal milk has IgA)
- high levels of Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn and Cu
- high in vitamin A (born blind)
- low lactose level (1% vs 3.4% of mature milk
- laxative effect (puppies unable to control defecation)
- growth factors stimulate intestine growth


How does colostrum affect the immune system?

- depend on passive transfer of immunoglobulins
- transplacental transfer only 5-10% of IgG
- drink within 24 hours before gut closure


Describe the composition of milk.

- supports normal growth of neonates (not too fast)
- composition does not change much during lactation


Describe the energy requirement during nursing period.

- energy requirement = energy for maintenance + growth
- huddle together for warmth (decreases energy requirement during first week of life)
- puppies with lower birth weight consume same amount of milk


Describe the protein requirement during the nursing period.

- met with ingestion of adequate amounts f milk
- protein digestibility of milk up to 99% (nitrogen retention in first week 99% reflects high degree of anabolism)
- rich in arginine, lysine and branched chain amino acids


Describe the fat requirement during nursing period.

- fat reserves at birth very slow
- milk must contain a lot of fat = high energy


Describe the carb requirement during nursing period.

- primary carb lactose
- lactose readily digested after digestion (lactase high until 4 months of age, amylase low)
- lactose favours colonization of beneficial bacterial species (competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria)


Describe Ca and P requirement during nursing period.

- Ca and P sufficient in milk
- but calcification of skeleton does not keep pace with increase in body size until after weaning


Describe iron requirement during nursing.

- accumulation of Fe in liver during last week of pregnancy
- during first 3-4 weeks, body iron stores, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decrease below levels at birth
- milk poor source of iron
- additional food with Fe ASAP
- Fe stores normalize at 4 months


Describe how weaning occurs.

- restriction of food intake 1-2 days before weaning (less nutrients available for milk production and reduction of mammary gland engorgement)
- no food at weaning
- restriction of food 1-2 days after weaning


What are the advantages of puppies eating solid food?

- less reliance on bitch
- less nutritional burden of bitch
- less iron deficiency


When do puppies start to eat solid food?

- 3-4 weeks of age
- when deciduous teeth begin to erupt
- eat small amount of bitch's fppd


What is gruel?

- blend moist weaning puppy food with warm water or milk replacer
- high in nutrients
- very digestible
- 25-30% DM highly digestible protein


What should happen at 6-7 weeks of age?

- puppies interest in solid food increases
- water content in gruel can be reduced
- weaning complete


What are the feeding goals of growing dogs?

- optimize growth
- minimize obesity
- minimize development of orthopaedic disease


Describe the energy requirements post weaning?

- maintenance + growth
- growth rate high in first weeks after weaning
- gradually, growth rate reaches plateau


How do the growth curves of different breeds of dogs differ?

- small and medium breeds achieve adult body weight faster than large breed dogs
- giant breeds can take up to 2 years to mature


What is the MER equation for puppies

130 x BW^0.75


What is important to take into consideration with large breed puppies?

- optimal not maximal growth is important factor for proper skeletal development
- excessive energy intake impairs endochondral bone formation


Describe protein requirement post weaning.

- follows pattern comparable to energy requirement


Describe the fat requirement post weaning.

suckling period >post weaning > adult maintenance


Describe the Ca and P requirement post weaning

- greatest needs during active formation of bones and teeth
- Ca homeostatic mechanisms less precise in puppies
- Ca:P 1:1


What can calcium deficiency do in growing dogs?

- nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
- large and giant breed puppies more at risk


What can calcium excess do in growing dogs?

- large increase in bone mineral content can lead to osteochondrosis, radius curvus, stunted growth, decreased bone turnover, increased bone mineral content
- restricted in large and giant breed puppies


What may happen if puppies eat food with low energy density and digestibility?

- puppies must eat large quantities of food
- increases risk of flatulence, vomiting, diarrhea, appearance of pot belly
- therefore, puppy food more digestible