Flashcards in 1.38 CSF & Ventricles Deck (25)
What are the meninges?
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
What is the falx cerebri?
all the layers come together in the space where the two hemispheres separate
What are the three compartments that the dura mater forms?
faux cerebri - sagittal
tentotrum cerebri - coronal - coveres cerebrum
Diaphragm sella - around the pituitary gland - through the roof of the carvernous sinus
What are the attachments of the faux cerebri?
Attach at crust gali at the front and occipital bone at the back
What is the tantrum notch?
Where the brainstem passes through
What happens to the dura mater when it exits through the foramen magnum?
The periostal layer stick to the outside and forms the periosteum
The meningeal layer exits through the foramen magnum then the spinal foramen to fuse with the nerves
Which layer of the dura mater is superficial?
Periostal layer is more superficial
The personal layer and meningeal layer split to form sinuses
What does the anterior meningeal artery supply?
Supplies a large territory underneath the pterion and a large part of the dura.
What provides the innervation to the dura?
V1 - falx cerebri
V2 - diaphragm selli
V1 - tentorum cerebri
What drains into the inferior sinus?
Great cerebral vein - drains the brain
Which sinus does the transverse sinus drain into?
Into the sigmoid sinus
What could happen if pressure in the cavernous sinus increases and what can cause this?
Can damage VI,III,IV, V2, and V3
Bleeding from carotid, high BP or increased pituitary
What are the normal constituents of CSF?
Ultra-filtrate of plasma, low protein and no blood cells
What produces the CSF?
Choroid plexus 60%
Cells lining ventricles 40%
What is the function of CSF?
Physical support and shock absorber
Distribution of neuroendocrine proteins
Facilitates perfusion of the brain - protects against changes in arterial pressure
What is an arachnoid granulation?
A small protrusion of the arachnoid through the dura mater
What is the function of an arachnoid granulation?
They protrude into a venous sinus and allows csf from the arachnoid space to drain into the venous sinus - conc gradient
What is an epidural haematoma?
Between skull and periostal layer of the dura
70-80% in tempopariatel region - middle meningeal artery
Limited by the periosteum
What is a myelogram?
Dye can be injected, which is visible in x rays, can be used to detect tumours
Where is the needle inserted in a lumbar puncture?
L3-4 - cauda equina - avoid damage to spinal cord which ends at L1
What is a subdural hematoma? (venous)
Between meningeal layer and arachnoid
Rupture of short veins
What is an arterial subdural hematoma?
In subarachnoid space
Major cause of headache
Emergency - potentially fatal
What is an intracerebral haemorrhage?
Hemorrhagic stroke - bleed in the brain
Ischeamic stroke - blood clot
*MRI SCAN within an hour to differentiate
What are the symptoms of hydrocephalus?
irritability, lethargic, throw up a lot, headaches, fever, poor coordination etc.