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Explain the production of speech...

• Three stages: (a) Generating a flow of air
(b) Converting the flow of air to a vibration
(c) Modifying the vibrations to produce
• Expiration produces airflow
• Phonation produces a vibration
• Articulation the process of modifying sounds
• The speech chain


Explain the main areas involved in the cortical representation of language...

• Asymmetric distribution in the cortex
• Amongst the first areas of the cortex to have functions ascribed to them
• Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, supramarginal and angular gyri
Superior longitudinal fasciculus


Describe Aphasia...

• Acquired disorders of language (dementias are excluded) heterogeneous, difficult to classify
• Expressive – poor speech/good comprehension (Broca’s aphasia)
• Receptive - poor comprehension/good speech (Wernicke’s)
• Often patients have elements of both
Conduction and global aphasia


What forms the fusiform gyrus...

medial occipito-temporal gyrus + lateral occipito-temporal gyrus


Which areas are involved with speech production?

• Primary motor and sensory cortices
• Supplementary motor area
• Basal ganglia


Which other areas are also involved in speech production?

For word retrieval from semantics - left middle frontal gyrus, left middle and inferior temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus
Visual word processing (skilled reading) ventral supramarginal gyrus, occipito-temporal cortex


What are the different types of language memories?

Long-term declarative memory, episodic memory, factual or semantic memory


Which areas of the brain are involved in speech comprehension?

Medial temporal lobe, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus
Specific areas for language functions include parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus


What are the different types of motor deficits?

• Spastic – upper motor neurone
• Flaccid – lower motor neurone
• Ataxic – cerebellum
• Hypokinetic – Parkinson`s disease
• Hyperkinetic – Spasmodic dysphonia
• Mixed – ALS or MS