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Flashcards in 1.58 Cortical Representation of Language Deck (9)
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1

Explain the production of speech...

• Three stages: (a) Generating a flow of air
(b) Converting the flow of air to a vibration
(c) Modifying the vibrations to produce
sound
• Expiration produces airflow
• Phonation produces a vibration
• Articulation the process of modifying sounds
• The speech chain

2

Explain the main areas involved in the cortical representation of language...

• Asymmetric distribution in the cortex
• Amongst the first areas of the cortex to have functions ascribed to them
• Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, supramarginal and angular gyri
Superior longitudinal fasciculus

3

Describe Aphasia...

• Acquired disorders of language (dementias are excluded) heterogeneous, difficult to classify
• Expressive – poor speech/good comprehension (Broca’s aphasia)
• Receptive - poor comprehension/good speech (Wernicke’s)
• Often patients have elements of both
Conduction and global aphasia

4

What forms the fusiform gyrus...

medial occipito-temporal gyrus + lateral occipito-temporal gyrus

5

Which areas are involved with speech production?

• Primary motor and sensory cortices
• Supplementary motor area
• Basal ganglia
Cerebellum

6

Which other areas are also involved in speech production?

For word retrieval from semantics - left middle frontal gyrus, left middle and inferior temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus
Visual word processing (skilled reading) ventral supramarginal gyrus, occipito-temporal cortex

7

What are the different types of language memories?

Long-term declarative memory, episodic memory, factual or semantic memory

8

Which areas of the brain are involved in speech comprehension?

Medial temporal lobe, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus
Specific areas for language functions include parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus

9

What are the different types of motor deficits?

• Spastic – upper motor neurone
• Flaccid – lower motor neurone
• Ataxic – cerebellum
• Hypokinetic – Parkinson`s disease
• Hyperkinetic – Spasmodic dysphonia
• Mixed – ALS or MS