Flashcards in 1.39 Axial Skeleton Deck (29)
Name the spinal vertebra...
5 sacral - fuse
4 coccygeal - fuse
Where are the 2 curvatures of the spine?
1. thoracic curvature (and sacral)
2. cervical and lumbar
When does primary curvature form?
In utero - born with them
When do the secondary curvatures form?
cervical - 3 months - when baby holds head up
limbar - 9-12months - when child starts to walk
Which vertebral processes have their spinal processes angled downwards the most?
Thoracic - difficult for an epidural - T3-T7
What type of joint is present between vertebral and intervertebral discs?
What type of joint is present in the articulation between the vertebral and the facets?
In the spine, where are intervertebral discs not present?
C1-C2 and saxrum and coccyx
Where can the foramen transversum be found?
C1-C6 - for the vertebral arteries
Lumbar inward curvature - secondary curvature
Thoracic outward curvature - primary curvature
What are the types of scolosis?
Thoracic - more towards the right - outward
Lumbar - more towards the left - inwards
What makes up a typical vertebrae?
1 spinous process
2 transverse processes
superior and inferior articular processes
Explain the different articulations (zygophysial/synovial joint) of each section of vertebrae...
Cervical - Sloped anterior to posterior
Thoracic - Vertical
Lumbar - Wrapped
In the costovertebral joint, with which vertebrae does a typical rib articulate with?
Head of typical rib, with its own vertebrae and 1 above
What articulates in the costotransverse joint?
Rib and corresponding transverse process, from its own vertebrae
What are the three classifications of the muscles of the back?
Superficial - Upper limbs - extrinsic
Intermediate - Respiratory - extrinsic
Deep - Extensors of the back - intrinsic
What separates the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles?
What are the attachements for the trapezius?
Occipital lines and spinal processes
What are the erect spinae muscles?
Spinalis, longissmus and iliocostalis
What are the transversespinales muscles?
Semispinalis - capitis, cervicis and thoracis
What are the spinotransversalis muscles? What is there function?
Spleneus capitus and cervicus
Bilaterally - extend neck
Unilaterally - turn head
Where is the internal venous plexus?
Outside dura but inside vertebral canal
Where is the external venous plexus?
Outside vertebral canal
Where can prostate metastases go to?
Internal and external venous spinal plexus
What are the extrinsic back muscles..
latissmus dorsi, trapezius, rhomboids, levator scapulae
What are the superficial intrinsic muscles...
Splenius capitis and cervicus (spinoteansversalis?)
What are the intermediate intrinsic muscles...
Iliocostalis, longissmus, and spinalis