1.39 Axial Skeleton Flashcards Preview

TSM > 1.39 Axial Skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.39 Axial Skeleton Deck (29):
1

Name the spinal vertebra...

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral - fuse
4 coccygeal - fuse

2

Where are the 2 curvatures of the spine?

1. thoracic curvature (and sacral)
2. cervical and lumbar

3

When does primary curvature form?

In utero - born with them

4

When do the secondary curvatures form?

cervical - 3 months - when baby holds head up
limbar - 9-12months - when child starts to walk

5

Which vertebral processes have their spinal processes angled downwards the most?

Thoracic - difficult for an epidural - T3-T7

6

What type of joint is present between vertebral and intervertebral discs?

Cartilagenous joint

7

What type of joint is present in the articulation between the vertebral and the facets?

Synovial

8

In the spine, where are intervertebral discs not present?

C1-C2 and saxrum and coccyx

9

Where can the foramen transversum be found?

C1-C6 - for the vertebral arteries

10

Define lordosis...

Lumbar inward curvature - secondary curvature

11

Define kyphosis...

Thoracic outward curvature - primary curvature

12

What are the types of scolosis?

Thoracic - more towards the right - outward
Lumbar - more towards the left - inwards

13

What makes up a typical vertebrae?

Vertebral body
Vertebral foramen
1 spinous process
2 transverse processes
superior and inferior articular processes

14

Explain the different articulations (zygophysial/synovial joint) of each section of vertebrae...

Cervical - Sloped anterior to posterior
Thoracic - Vertical
Lumbar - Wrapped

15

In the costovertebral joint, with which vertebrae does a typical rib articulate with?

Head of typical rib, with its own vertebrae and 1 above

16

What articulates in the costotransverse joint?

Rib and corresponding transverse process, from its own vertebrae

17

What are the three classifications of the muscles of the back?

Superficial - Upper limbs - extrinsic
Intermediate - Respiratory - extrinsic
Deep - Extensors of the back - intrinsic

18

What separates the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles?

Thoracolumbar fascia

19

What are the attachements for the trapezius?

Occipital lines and spinal processes

20

What are the erect spinae muscles?

Spinalis, longissmus and iliocostalis

21

What are the transversespinales muscles?

Semispinalis - capitis, cervicis and thoracis
Rotators
Multifudus

22

What are the spinotransversalis muscles? What is there function?

Spleneus capitus and cervicus
Bilaterally - extend neck
Unilaterally - turn head

23

Where is the internal venous plexus?

Outside dura but inside vertebral canal

24

Where is the external venous plexus?

Outside vertebral canal

25

Where can prostate metastases go to?

Internal and external venous spinal plexus

26

What are the extrinsic back muscles..

latissmus dorsi, trapezius, rhomboids, levator scapulae

27

What are the superficial intrinsic muscles...

Splenius capitis and cervicus (spinoteansversalis?)

28

What are the intermediate intrinsic muscles...

Erector spinae
Iliocostalis, longissmus, and spinalis

29

What are the deep intrinsic muscles...

Semispinalis, multifidus & rotares - innervation posterior ramus