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Flashcards in 14. Renal Deck (80)
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1

What artery prevents a horseshoe kidney from ascending in the abdomen?

IMA

2

What fundamental problem creates Potter sequence?

oligohydramnios

3

What cell type releases renin?

juxtaglomerular cells

4

What are the 3 stimuli that induce renin release?

- beta-adrenergic stimulation
- low renal arterial BP (sensed by JG cells)
- decreased Na+ in distal convoluted tubule (sensed by macula densa)

5

What effect will a renal stone that obstructs the ureter have on GFR and FF?

- decreased GFR
- no change in RPF
- thus, decreased FF

6

What is the maximal serum glucose concentration at which glucose can be absorbed in the tubules?

350 mg/dL

7

What vitamin deficiency results from Hartnup disease?

niacin (B3) --> pellagra

note: Hartnup disease is when there is deficiency of neutral amino acid transporters in proximal renal tubular cells (ex. tryptophan)
- thus, decreased tryptophan for conversion to niacin

8

What is the equation for the renal clearance of any substance?

Renal clearance = UV/P
- U = urine concentration of particular substrate (mg/mL)
- V = urine flow rate (mL/min)
- P = plasma concentration of substrate (mg/dL)

9

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- reabsorbs 67% of the fluid and electrolytes filtered by the glomerulus

prox tubule

10

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- site of secretion of organic anions and cations

prox tubule

11

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- always impermeable to water

thick ascending limb

12

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- permeable to water only in the presence of ADH

late distal tubule, collecting duct

13

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- site of Na/2Cl/K co-transporter

thick ascending limb

14

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- site of isotonic fluid reabsorption

prox tubule

15

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- site responsible for diluting urine

thick ascending limb

16

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- only site where glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed

prox tubule

17

What segment of the renal tubule matches each of the following statements?
- water reabsorption in the loop of Henle

thin descending limb

18

What are the 2 main cell types of the collecting duct?

- principal cell
- intercalated cell

19

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- triamterene

K+ sparing

20

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- acetazolamide

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

21

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- hydrochlorothiazide

thiazide

22

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- bumetanide

loop

23

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- spironolactone

K+ sparing (aldo-antagonist)

24

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- ethacrynic acid

loop (non-sulfa)

25

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- mannitol

osmotic diuretic

26

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- metolazone

thiazide

27

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- chlorthalidone

thiazide

28

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- furosemide

loop

29

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- amiloride

K+ sparing

30

What type of diuretic is each of the following drugs?
- torsemide

loop