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Flashcards in DIT Warm-Up Questions Deck (101)
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1

What embryonic structure (derived from the hypoblast) serves as a secondary energy source?

Endodermal yolk sac

2

What embryonic structure serves as a reservoir of nonspecialized (undifferentiated) stem cells?

Endodermal yolk sac

3

What are the 3 germ layers that derive from epiblast?

ecto, meso, endo

4

What is the embryologic origin of the tissue just proximal to the pectinate line?

Tissue just distal?

endoderm

surface ecto

5

What effect might ACE inhibitor have on developing fetus?

renal abnormalities

6

What effect might aminoglycosides have on developing fetus?

ototoxicity

7

What effect might DES have on developing fetus?

vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma

8

What effect might tetracyclines have on developing fetus?

discolored teeth

9

What effect might valproic acid have on developing fetus?

neural tube defect

10

Which vitamin should not be supplemented in large acts during pregnancy

vitamin A (high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects - cleft palate, cardiac)

11

Which amino acids are found in nuclear localization signals?

PAL: proline, arginine, lysine

12

What is the most common cause of intellectual disability in infants?

alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome)

13

How do Rb protein and p53 regulate the cell cycle?

prevents G1 --> S phase

14

During what weeks of fetal development does organogenesis take place?

week 3-8

15

What molecules provide the structural framework for DNA and the nuclear envelope?

nuclear lamins

16

What is deficient in I-cell disease?

phosphotransferase
(tags lysosomal enzymes with mannose-6-phosphate so it will go to lysosome and be sequestered)

17

What are the stages that an embryo goes through between conception and the development of an inner cell mass?

zygote --> morula --> blastocyst

18

What drugs interfere with microtubule functioning?

- anti-cancer (vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel)

- colchicine
- benzimidazoles (mebendazole, albendazole)
- griseofulvin

19

Which cell types are constantly regenerating themselves due to an absence of the G0 phase and a short G1 phase? (3)

- skin
- hair follicles
- bone marrow

20

What are the characteristic features of a cell undergoing apoptosis? (5)

1. cellular shrinkage
2. pyknosis (nuclear shrinkage)
3. membrane blebbing
4. karyorrhexis, karyolysis
5. apoptotic bodies

21

How do Bax and Bcl-2 affect apoptosis?

Bax = pro-apoptotic (activated by DNA damage or apoptotic signals)

Bcl-2 = anti-apoptotic regulator of mitochondrial permeability

22

What protein is involved in transporting endocytose vesicles from the plasma membrane to the endosome?

clathrin (via receptor mediated endocytosis)

23

Which metals are known to facilitate the generation of oxygen free radicals? (2)

iron and copper

24

Which tumor suppressor proteins prevent the progression of the cell into S phase

Rb, p53

25

What developmental structure matches each of the following descriptions?

a. the fetal placental structure that secretes hCG

b. maternal component of the placenta

a. syncytiotrophoblast

b. decidua basalis

26

How does having a HIGH cholesterol content in the plasma membrane affect the function of the plasma membrane?

- decrease fluidity
- increase melting temperature

27

A patient presents with an aganglionic colon and other neural crest derivative deficiencies. What other findings would you expect to see?

- PNS abnormalities
- autonomic dysfunction
- conductive hearing loss (b/c ossicles aren't formed properly)
- anterior chamber eye problems
- dental abnormalities
- albinism
- heart defects (truncus arteriosus, transposition)

28

Which amino acids are modified in the Golgi apparatus? (4)

1. Serine
2. Threonine
3. Asparagine
4. Tyrosine

29

Failure of what process results in I-cell disease?

failure of addition of mannose-6-phosphate marker to lysosomal enzymes (thus goes to the outside of the cell instead of to lysosome)

30

What organelle becomes hypertrophied in hepatocytes with chronic phenobarbital use?

smooth ER