Flashcards in 1. Foundations Deck (46)
What is the relationship between the notochord, the neural plate, the neural tube, and the neural crest cells?
- notochord (mesoderm) induces ectoderm to form the neural plate
- neural plate gives rise to neural tube and neural crest cells
What is the embryologic origin of anterior pituitary?
What is the embryologic origin of cornea?
What is the embryologic origin of the lens?
What is the embryologic origin of the retina?
embryologic origin of olfactory epithelium?
embryologic origin of mammary glands, salivary glands, sweat glands?
Which abs are potentially teratogenic?
- tetracyclines (discolored teeth)
- fluoroquinolones (cartilage)
Which drugs have such high potential for teratogenicity that they are classified as pregnancy category X?
Examination of a fetus from a spontaneous abortion at 14 weeks gestation reveals a vestigial pair of legs that arise from the torso, just below the arms. A mutation in what family of genes is the most likely cause of this malformation?
HOX genes (determine layout of the appendages)
What must be present on a protein in order for that protein to gain entry into the nucleus?
nuclear localization signals
What amino acids are rich in nuclear localization signal
PAL --> proline, arginine, lysine
Which cyclin-CDK complexes assist in the progression from G1 to S phase?
Cyclin D - CDK 4
Cyclin E - CDK 2
Which cyclin-CDK complexes assist in the progression from G2 to M phase?
Cyclin A - CDK 2
Cyclin B - CDK 1
Which molecule does the Golgi apparatus add to proteins in order to direct the proteins to lysosomes?
What are the different methods that a cell uses to break down proteins?
1. proteasomal degradation
2. lysosomal degradation
3. calcium-dependent enzymes
What drugs act on microtubules?
- vincristine, vinblastine
- paclitaxel, docetaxel
- Benzimidazoles (anti-helminthic)
- Griseofulvin (anti-fungal)
What intermediate filaments are found in the following tissue types and cellular structures?
a. connective tissue
b. muscle tissue
c. epithelial tissue
What are the defects seen in Kartagener syndrome?
- chronic sinusitis
- situs inversus
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Which arachidonic acid product causes increased bronchial tone?
Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased bronchial tone?
PGI-2 (prostacyclin), prostaglandins
Which arachidonic acid product causes increased platelet aggregation?
Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased platelet aggregation?
Which arachidonic acid product causes increased uterine tone?
prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF-2a)
Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased uterine tone?
Which arachidonic acid product causes increased vascular tone?
Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased vascular tone?
What are the 2 most abundant substances in the plasma membrane?
What drugs inhibit leukotriene production? (3)
What enzymes/receptor do they affect
Zileuton (blocks lipoxygenase)
Montelukast, zafirlukast (blocks leukotriene receptors)