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1

What is the relationship between the notochord, the neural plate, the neural tube, and the neural crest cells?

- notochord (mesoderm) induces ectoderm to form the neural plate
- neural plate gives rise to neural tube and neural crest cells

2

What is the embryologic origin of anterior pituitary?

surface ecto

3

What is the embryologic origin of cornea?

neural crest

4

What is the embryologic origin of the lens?

surface ecto

5

What is the embryologic origin of the retina?

neuroectoderm

6

embryologic origin of olfactory epithelium?

surface ecto

7

embryologic origin of mammary glands, salivary glands, sweat glands?

surface ecto

8

Which abs are potentially teratogenic?

- aminoglycosides
- tetracyclines (discolored teeth)
- fluoroquinolones (cartilage)

9

Which drugs have such high potential for teratogenicity that they are classified as pregnancy category X?

1. MTX
2. Statins
3. Warfarin
4. Isotretinoin
5. DES
6. Thalidomide

10

Examination of a fetus from a spontaneous abortion at 14 weeks gestation reveals a vestigial pair of legs that arise from the torso, just below the arms. A mutation in what family of genes is the most likely cause of this malformation?

HOX genes (determine layout of the appendages)

11

What must be present on a protein in order for that protein to gain entry into the nucleus?

nuclear localization signals

12

What amino acids are rich in nuclear localization signal

PAL --> proline, arginine, lysine

13

Which cyclin-CDK complexes assist in the progression from G1 to S phase?

Cyclin D - CDK 4
Cyclin E - CDK 2

14

Which cyclin-CDK complexes assist in the progression from G2 to M phase?

Cyclin A - CDK 2
Cyclin B - CDK 1

15

Which molecule does the Golgi apparatus add to proteins in order to direct the proteins to lysosomes?

mannose-6-phosphate

16

What are the different methods that a cell uses to break down proteins?

1. proteasomal degradation
2. lysosomal degradation
3. calcium-dependent enzymes

17

What drugs act on microtubules?

Cancer drugs:
- vincristine, vinblastine
- paclitaxel, docetaxel

- Benzimidazoles (anti-helminthic)
- Griseofulvin (anti-fungal)
- Colchicine

18

What intermediate filaments are found in the following tissue types and cellular structures?

a. connective tissue
b. muscle tissue
c. epithelial tissue
d. axons

a. vimentin
b. desmin
c. cytokeratin
d. neurofilaments

19

What are the defects seen in Kartagener syndrome?

- bronchiectasis
- chronic sinusitis
- situs inversus
(also infertility)

Primary ciliary dyskinesia

20

Which arachidonic acid product causes increased bronchial tone?

thromboxane, leukotrienes

21

Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased bronchial tone?

PGI-2 (prostacyclin), prostaglandins

22

Which arachidonic acid product causes increased platelet aggregation?

thromboxane

23

Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased platelet aggregation?

PGI-2

24

Which arachidonic acid product causes increased uterine tone?

prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF-2a)

25

Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased uterine tone?

PGI-2 (prostacyclins)

26

Which arachidonic acid product causes increased vascular tone?

thromboxane

27

Which arachidonic acid product causes decreased vascular tone?

PGI-2, prostaglandins

28

What are the 2 most abundant substances in the plasma membrane?

proteins, phospholipids

29

What drugs inhibit leukotriene production? (3)

What enzymes/receptor do they affect

Zileuton (blocks lipoxygenase)

Montelukast, zafirlukast (blocks leukotriene receptors)

30

What drug class (1) act on the pathway from membrane phospholipids to arachidonic acid?

what enzyme does it effect

corticosteroids
(blocks phospholipase A2)