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Flashcards in Microbiology pt.2 Deck (143):
1

What type of vaccine uses a live virus that has been modified? What are some examples of live virus vaccines?

Live attenuated vaccines:
MMR, Sabine polio, VZV, yellow fever, small pox, intranasal influenza

2

What is the DNA structure of most DNA viruses? What are the exceptions?

double stranded and linear
Exceptions:
- parvovirus (ssDNA)
- papilloma, polyoma, hepadna(circular)

3

When should live virus vaccines be considered for HIV positive pts?

- rotavirus for all infants with HIV
- if CD4 >200, can give MMR, varicella
- not recommend: intranasal flu, herpes zoster

4

Which viral families do not have an envelope? (8)

DNA: papilloma, adeno, parvo, polyoma
RNA: calici, picorna, reo, hepe

5

What is the treatment for the diff. herpes virus?

HSV 1, 2, VZV: acyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir

CMV: gangiclovir, foscarnet (if gang doesn't work)

6

What group of pts is prone to esophagitis caused by CMV?

AIDS (CV4

7

Where is the latent herpes infection found in the body?

HSV1: trigeminal ganglion
HSV2: sacral ganglion
VZV: dorsal root or trigeminal
CMV: mononuclear cells
EBV: B cells

8

What are Downey cells

T cells that respond to an EBV infection (atypical lymphocytes; foamy cytoplasm)

9

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- erythema infectiosum (5th disease)

parvovirus B19

10

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- heterophile-positive mononucleosis

EBV

11

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- can cause conjunctivitis or diarrhea

adenovirus

12

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- enlarged cell with "owl eye" inclusions

CMV

13

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- identified with pap smear

human papilloma virus

14

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- milkmaid's blisters

cowpox (vaccinia virus; part of poxvirus)

15

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

EBV

16

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- gingivostomatitis

HSV-1

17

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- hides in sensory ganglia of S2 and S3

HSV-2

18

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- hides in trigeminal ganglia

HSV-1

19

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- hides in dorsal root ganglia

VZV

20

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- virus family of JC virus

polyomavirus

21

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- Downey cells

EBV

22

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- PML

JC virus (part of polyomavirus)

23

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- oral hairy leukoplakia

EBV

24

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- multinucleate giant cells on Tzanck test

HSV 1, 2, VZV

25

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- only DNA virus that is not double stranded

parvovirus

26

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- roseola

6th disease (HHV-6)

27

Which DNA virus is associated with each of the following?
- heterophile-negative mononucleosis

CMV

28

A 45 yo man with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis had exposure to which virus?

HPV

29

A 20 yo collage student presents with LAD, fever, and HSM. His serum agglutinates sheep red blood cells. What cell type is infection?

EBV virus --> infects B cells

30

What is the number one cause of fatal infantile gastroenteritis?

rotavirus

31

What virus is commonly associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis on cruise ships?

norovirus

32

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- hand foot mouth disease

coxsackie

33

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- "break bone" fever

dengue

34

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- common cold (2)

rhinovirus, coronavirus

35

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- fever, jaundice, black vomit

yellow fever

36

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- meningitis in summer months

echovirus, coxsackie virus, other enteroviruses

37

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- tourniquet test helps diagnose hemorrhagic disease

dengue

38

Which RNA virus matches each of the following
- infects motor neurons in the anterior horn (2)

polio
west nile virus

39

which antiviral matches each of the following statements?
- ppx for influenza A

zanamivir, oseltamivir

40

which antiviral matches each of the following statements?
- used in treatment for chronic hep C

ribavirin + IFN-alpha

41

which antiviral matches each of the following statements?
- first line for herpes simplex virus or VZV

-cyclovirs

42

which antiviral matches each of the following statements?
- inhibit viral DNA polymerase when phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase

-cyclovirs

43

Which RNA virus matches each of the following statements
- "barking seal" cough

parainfluenza virus (croup)

44

Which RNA virus matches each of the following statements
- childhood diarrhea in the winter months

rotavirus

45

Which RNA virus matches each of the following statements
- asthma-sounding infection in infants (esp. preemies)

RSV

46

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- can cause conjunctivitis or diarrhea

adenovirus

47

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- fever, jaundice, black vomit

yellow fever

48

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- enlarged cell with "owl eye" inclusions

CMV

49

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- "barking seal" cough

parainfluenza

50

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- bronchiolitis with cough and wheezing in babies

RSV

51

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- negri bodies

Rabies

52

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- hides in trigeminal ganglia

HSV-1, VZV

53

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- diarrhea in children during winter months

rotavirus

54

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- downey cells

EBV

55

What virus (RNA of DNA) fits the following statements?
- aseptic meningitis

enteroviruses
Mumps

56

What ppx are used in HIV pts (and at what CD4)?

CD4

57

What organisms are known to cause infections in the mouth of AIDS patients? (4)

- candida (oral thrush)
- EBV (oral hairy leukoplakia)
- HSV
- CMV

58

What are the 3 structural genes that code for HIV proteins?

- pol (reverse transcriptase, integrase)
- env (gp 120, gp41)
- gag (p24 capsid protein)

59

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: ritonavir

PI

60

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: didanosine

NRTI

61

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: delavirdine

NNRTI

62

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: zidovudine

NRTI

63

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: abacavir

NRTI

64

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: lamivudine

NRTI

65

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: nelfinavir

protease inhib

66

Categorize the following agent as protease inhibitor, NRTI, or NNRTI: efavirenz

NNRTI

67

What are the 2 HIV envelope proteins and the drugs that interfere with them?

- gp41 (enfuvirtide; inhibits viral entry)
- gp120 (maraviroc; prevents attachment to T-cells at CCR-5)

68

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: lactic acidosis

NRTI

69

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: GI intolerance

Protease inhib

70

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: pancreatitis

didanosine (NRTI)

71

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: peripheral neuropathy

didanosine

72

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: megaloblastic anemia

zidovudine

73

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: rash

NNRTI

74

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: hyperglycemia, DM, lipid abnormalities

protease inhib

75

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- side effect: bone marrow suppression

zidovudine

76

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- given to pregnant women with HIV

zidovudine (but if she's already on drugs, continue those)

77

Which antiretroviral or antiretroviral class matches the following statements?
- regimen for occupational HIV exposure

3 drug regimen

78

Which fungus matches each of the following?
- causes diaper rash

candida

79

Which fungus matches each of the following?
- opportunistic mold with septate hyphae that branch at 45 degree angle

aspergillus

80

Which fungus matches each of the following?
- opportunistic mold with irregular nonseptate hyphae that branch at wide angles

mucor, rhizopus

81

Which fungus matches each of the following?
- known for causing pneumonia in AIDS patients

PCP

82

Which fungus matches each of the following?
- yeast known for causing meningitis in AIDS patients

cryptococcus

83

What is the appearance of a KOH skin scraping in a patient with tinea versicolor?

"spaghetti & meatball" appearance
- caused by Malassezia

84

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- found in southwestern US including West Texas and California

coccidioides

85

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- found in Mississippi and Ohio River basins

histo

86

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- causes San Joaquin Valley fever

coccidioides

87

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- found in rural Latin America

paracoccidioides

88

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- associated with plant thorns and cutaneous injury

sporothrix schenckii

89

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- found in states east of the Mississippi river

blastomyces

90

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- found in bird and bat droppings

histo

91

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- mold form contains barrel-shaped arthroconidia

coccidioides

92

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- associated with dust storms

coccidioides

93

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- broad-based budding of yeast

blasto

94

Which fungus matches each of the following:
- multiple budding of yeast form

paracoccidioides

95

What infections are associated with birds? (5)

histoplasma, cryptococcus, chlamydophila psittaci, west nile virus, H5N1 influenza (avian flu)

96

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- interferes with microtubule function

griseofulvin

97

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- "swish and swallow" for oral candidiasis (thrush)

nystatin

98

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- cell wall synthesis inhibitor used in invasive aspergillosis

cASPofungin (echinocandins)

99

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- binds ergosterol --> membrane pores (2)

amphotericin B, nystatin

100

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- inhibits ergosterol synthesis (2)

azoles, terbinafine

101

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- most common treatment for onychomycosis

terbinafine

102

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- side effect: arrhythmias and nephrotoxicity

amphotericin B

103

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- deposits in keratin-containing tissues

griseofulvin

104

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- inhibits hormone synthesis and cytochrome p450

azoles (esp ketoconazole)

105

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- side effect: liver dysfunction (2)

azoles, griseofulvin

106

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- side effect: teratogenic

griseofulvin

107

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- used for cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS

IV amphotericin B + flucytosine

108

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- converted to 5-fluorouracil; inhibits DNA synthesis

flucytosine

109

Which antifungal fits each of the following statements?
- drug of choice for sporotrichosis

itraconazole

110

What antifungal can be used intrathecally for fungal meningitis?

amphotericin B

111

What are the clinical use and side effects of griseofulvin?

use: superficial fungal infection; tinea capitis, onychomycosis
s/e: teratogenic, induce cyto p450, hepatotoxic

112

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- cause of malaria

Plasmodium sp.

113

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- most common protozoal infection in the US

trichomonas vaginalis

114

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- cause of Chagas disease

Trypanosoma cruzi

115

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- amoebic dysentery

entamoeba histolytica

116

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- african sleeping sickness

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/gambiense

117

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- diarrhea in campers and hikers

giardia

118

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- transmitted in raw meat or infected cat feces

toxo

119

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- transmitted by sandflies

Leishmania

120

What protozoan matches each of the following?
- causes vaginitis

Trichomonas vaginalis

121

A patient who visited Mexico presents with bloody diarrhea. What infectious form is found in the stool?

cysts of Entamoeba histolytica

122

A 32 yo man went camping in northern Cali 3 wks ago, had a stint of diarrhea a couple of weeks after the trip, and now presents with symptoms of abdominal pain in the RUQ, fever, and abnormal liver function tests. What is the infectious organism?

Entamoeba histolytica --> causing liver abscess

123

What are the names of the following stages in the malaria life cycle?
- looks like a diamond ring

early trophozoite

124

What are the names of the following stages in the malaria life cycle?
- ruptures the cell host

merozoite

125

What are the names of the following stages in the malaria life cycle?
- replicating intracellularly

schizont (within hepatocyte)

126

What are the names of the following stages in the malaria life cycle?
- form injected from the Anopheles mosquito

sporozoite

127

What are the names of the following stages in the malaria life cycle?
- banana-shaped

gametocyte

128

A patient returning from a 2-wk vacation in West Africa presents with typical malaria presentation and recurrent fever. What is the mechanism responsible for this pts' recurrent fever?

RBC hemolysis --> release of merozoites

129

What helminth matches each of the following statements?
- snail host, "swimmer's itch"

Schistosoma sp.

130

What helminth matches each of the following statements?
- fluke associated with hematuria and bladder cancer

schistosoma haematobium

131

What helminth matches each of the following statements?
- contracted by eating undercooked fish and causes inflammation of the biliary tract

Clonorchis (liver fluke)

132

What helminth matches each of the following statements?
- soil --> enters through skin --> venous blood supply --> lungs --> coughed into pharynx --> intestines

SANd
- strongyloides, ancylostoma, Necator

133

What helminth matches each of the following statements?
- responsible for lymphatic filariasis

Wuchereria bancrofti (Elephantiasis)

134

What helminth matches each of the following statements?
- adult pt from Mexico with new onset seizures and brain calcifications

Taenia solium (ingestion of egg)

135

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas

Metronidazole

136

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
- Plasmodium vivax or ovale

Chloroquine with primaquine

137

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
- chloroquine-resistant malarias

mefloquine

138

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
- most flukes (like Schistosoma and Clonorchis)

praziquantel

139

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
- hookworm, pinworm, roundworm

bendazoles

140

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
- chagas disease

Benznidazole or nifurtimox

141

What medication is used to treat each of the following parasitic infections?
- Leishmaniasis

liposomal amphotericin B

142

Which 2 agents are usually used in the treatment of pediculosis capitis and pediculosis pubis?

permethrin or pyrethrin

143

Why is lindane not the preferred agent in the treatment of lice?

neurotoxic (and lice are now resistant to this drug anyways)