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Flashcards in 9. GI Deck (84)
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1

What is the most common location of salivary gland tumors?

parotid gland

2

What is the most common salivary gland tumor? What is the histological appearance of this tumor?

pleomorphic adenoma (benign)
--> composed of both epithelial and mesenchymal type cells

3

What is the 2nd most common benign salivary gland tumor?

Warthin tumor
(benign cystic tumor where you have double layer of columnar epithelium around the cyst; looks like lymphoid tissue)

4

What is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor (the 2nd most common tumor overall of the salivary gland)?

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

5

What medication is often used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps, and eustachian tube dysfunction?

intranasal steroids

6

What are the names of the diverticula found in the esophagus based on their anatomical locations? (3)

- Zenker: immediately above UES
- Traction: mid
- Epiphrenic: immediately above LES

7

What upper GI problem is associated with biopsy of a patient with esophagitis reveals large, pink, intranuclear inclusions and host cell chromatin that is pushed to the edge of the nucleus?

HSV esophagitis
(punched out ulcers)

8

What upper GI problem is associated with biopsy of a patient with esophagitis revealing enlarged cells, intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions, and a clear perinuclear halo?

CMV esophagitis
(linear ulcers)

9

What upper GI problem is associated with an esophageal biopsy revealing a lack of ganglion cells b/w the inner and outer muscular layers?

achalasia

10

What upper GI problem is associated with protrusion of the mucosa in the upper esophagus

plummer-vinson (esophageal webs)

11

What upper GI problem is associated with outpouching of the esophagus found just above the LES?

epiphrenic diverticulum

12

What upper GI problem is associated with goblet cells in the distal esophagus

Barrett esophagus

13

What upper GI problem is associated with a PAS stain on a biopsy from a pt with esophagitis revealing hyphate organisms?

Candida esophagitis (white pseudomembrane)

14

What upper GI problem is associated with esophageal pouch found in the upper esophagus

Zenker diverticulum

15

What disorder is characterized by an excess of gastrin? What is the treatment?

Zollinger Ellison syndrome
Tx: PPI +/- octreotide

16

What receptors found on gastric parietal cells regulate acid secretion? (5)

- H2 receptor (most important)
- CCKb receptor (directly stim by gastrin)
- M3 receptor (directly stim by vagus)
- Prostaglandin receptor (inhibitory)
- somatostatin receptor (inhibitory)

17

What happens to serum pH at the time of gastric acid secretion?

serum pH rises slightly (alkaline)

18

Which antacid can cause diarrhea?

magnesium hydroxide

19

Which antacid can cause constipation?

aluminum hydroxide

20

Which antacid can cause hypercalcemia?

calcium bicarb

21

Which antacids can cause hypokalemia?

all of them

22

A patient taking NSAIDs develops anemia, has pain with eating, and is positive on occult blood test. What drug would most directly address the mechanism behind this patient's current problem?

Misoprostol (PGE2 analog)
--> b/c NSAIDs are blocking prostaglandin production

23

Where is Virchow's node located?

left supraclavicular lymph node (can indicate gastric cancer)

24

What important secretory products are secreted from G cells?

gastrin

25

What important secretory products are secreted from I cells?

CCK

26

What important secretory products are secreted from S cells?

secretin

27

What important secretory products are secreted from D cells?

somatostatin

28

What important secretory products are secreted from gastric parietal cells?

gastric acid, intrinsic factor

29

What GI ligament contains the portal triad and may be compressed to control bleeding?

hepatoduodenal

30

What GI ligament attaches the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall?

splenorenal