2: Infant Cognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2: Infant Cognition Deck (17)
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1
Q

What is self regulation and what has to do with it?

A

Self regulation is maintaining a srable/desirable internal state by modulating affect, behaviour and cognition.

2
Q

Why study infant cognition?

A

Because early development lays the foundation for later life outcomes, like early trauma, malnutrition, self-regulation.
- Babies learn a lot quite quickly

3
Q

When do babies learn at what times they have to sleep?

A

At +- 12 months, they sleep at night and take naps, but are awake for longer periods

4
Q

What are things we can and want to study in infants?

A
  • Attention > eye movements

- How do they learn?

5
Q

How can we study infants?

A

From year 1: standardized tests

6
Q

What are downsides of standardized tests?

A
  • CUmbersome, time-consuming
  • Requires much training
  • Parent measures are not measuring the infant
  • Sometimes not very reliable
7
Q

How does the visual preference method work?

A
  • Assumption: longer looking time means preference/interest and being able to distinguish stimuli
  • Looking times can be used to study the development of perceptual and cognitive abilities
8
Q

How does habituation-dishabituation work?

A
  • Repeated presentation of the same stimulus, when looking time decreases = habituation
  • Looking time increases again upon presentation of a new stimulus = dishabituation
9
Q

Why is looking behavior so important?

A
  • It’s available to infants very early on, almost completely before 3 months (and under control)
  • Seen as a measure of attention
10
Q

How does eye-tracking work?

A
  • Use a light to illuminate the eye
  • Use a camera to film the eye
  • Use an algorithm to detect the corneal reflection, the iris and determine the eye gaze position
  • Fixations: relatively stable position
  • Saccade: fast movement to a new location
11
Q

What are stages of infant attention development?

A
  1. alertness, wake-sleep cycles
  2. spatial orienting: becoming aware of space
  3. object attention
  4. endogenous control
12
Q

What are the results of studing difference in looking time?

A

When given more time, long lookers are able to discriminate in the featural task.
When gives less time, they break down in the global task
- Short lookers have more efficient information processing abilities than long lookers

13
Q

What causes the difference in looking time?

A

Two hypotheses:

  1. short vs long looking is related with a shift from global to local attention
  2. short vs long looking is related to overall processing speed
14
Q

What have we learnt from visual preference method?

A

Infants show systematic preferences for faces, complex and new stimuli

15
Q

What is free viewing?

A

sit back and relax, view pictures for 8 seconds each

16
Q

What are some findings of free viewing?

A

With age:

  • fixation durations decrease
  • saccade amplitudes decrease
17
Q

What are the results of the Geeraerst study?

A

Eye movements are one of the first behaviours that come under voluntary control of the infant